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Ancient Greek artists

Version 001, May 2016.

Last updated 13 September 2017.

A work in progress - see notes below
Sculptors     Potters / vase painters     Painters     Mosaicists     Architects
Ancient Greek
artists
Sculptors
A      B      C      D      E      G      H      I      K      L      M
N      P      R      S      T
A
 
Name / Biographical information   Works / References  
Adymos of Veroea

Ἅδυμος (Latin, Adymus)

1st century AD

From Veroea (Βέροια), Macedonia

He was the son of Evandros, perhaps
Evandros of Veroea.

It is thought that Evandros and Adymos belonged to a family of sculptors who undertook commissions around Macedonia and Thessaly. They both made grave monuments and, unusually, signed their name on them; most sculptors of the time remain anonymous. This suggests that they had a high reputation in the region.
  The only surviving sculpture by Adymos, is the lower part of a marble grave column, discovered in 1932 at the village of Marvinci, Valandovo, Republic of Macedonia (near the border with Greece), probably the site of the ancient Paeonian city Idomeneo. It has a bas-relief of the lower part of a woman wearing a sleeved cloak, to the right of which is the inscription:

Ἅδυμος Εὐάνδρου Βεροιαῖος ἐποίει

Adymos, son of Evandros, of Veroea, made it.

Inscription SEG 18:272.

Skopje Archaeological Museum.

Height 31 cm, width 28 cm, depth 13 cm.
 
Aetion

Αετίων

Sculptor and painter?

Mid 4th - early 3rd century BC

Perhaps from Amphipolis, Macedonia
  A sculptor named Aetion is known from references by Pliny the Elder, Theocritus and Callimachus. Aetion as a painter is mentioned by Cicero, Pliny and Lucian, who describes a painting of the Marriage of Alexander the Great and Roxana.

See the Aetion page for further details.
 
Agesander of Rhodes

Άγήσανδρος

(Agesandros, Hagesander, Hagesandros, Hagesanderus)

1st century BC - 1st century AD

Rhodes
  The Hellenistic marble statue groups "Laocoon and his Sons" (before 79 AD) in the Vatican Museums, and the "Scylla Group" (before 26 AD) at Sperlonga are signed by three sculptors including Agesander. Pliny wrote that he created "Laocoon and his sons" with Athenodoros and Polydoros (Natural History, Book 35, chapter 5), and is the only ancient author to mention him.

The Sperlonga sculptures, a collection of fragmented sculpture groups depicting scenes of Odysseus' adventures from Homer's Odyssey, was discovered in 1957 in a grotto at the Villa of Emperor Tiberius at Sperlonga, on the west coast of Italy, between Rome and Naples. The Scylla Group depicts Odysseus' ship being attacked by the monster Skylla. An inscription on the ship names the sculptors as "Athenodoros, son of Agesander", "Agesandros, son of Paionios" and "Polydoros, son of Polydoros".

It has been suggested that the three sculptors were copyists, and also that there may have been more than one Agesander, possibly members of the same family. Scholars have attempted to identify the one or more Agesanders on the grounds of artistic style and from these inscriptions as well as others found in Rhodes and elsewhere.
 
Agorakritos of Paros

Ἀγοράκριτος (Latin, Agoracritus)

2nd half of the 5th century BC

From Paros; he worked in Athens

According to Pliny, he was from Paros and a pupil of Pheidias at the same time as Alkamenes:

"Another disciple also of Phidias was Agoracritus of Paros, a great favourite with his master, on account of his extremely youthful age; and for which reason, it is said, Phidias gave his own name to many of that artist's works.

The two pupils entering into a contest as to the superior execution of a statue of Venus [Aphrodite], Alcamenes was successful; not that his work was superior, but because his fellow-citizens chose to give their suffrages in his favour in preference to a stranger. It was for this reason, it is said, that Agoracritus sold his statue, on the express condition that it should never be taken to Athens, and changed its name to that of Nemesis. It was accordingly erected at Rhamnus, a borough of Attica, and M. Varro has considered it superior to every other statue.

There is also to be seen in the Temple of the Great Mother [Kybele], in the same city, another work by Agoracritus."

Pliny, Natural history, Book 36, chapter 4.

He is also mentioned by Pausanias and Strabo.
  His works included:

Marble statues of Nemesis and Kybele at Rhamnous, near Marathon, Attica.

Bronze statues of Athena Itonia and Zeus/Hades at Koroneia, Boeotia.

A marble statue of Demeter from Eleusis, circa 420 BC, is thought to have made in the workshop of Agorakritos. Eleusis Archaeological Museum. Inv. No. 5076.

A marble statue of Persephone, circa 420-410 BC, found in Piraeus, is attributed to the school of Agorakritos. National Archaeological Museum, Athens. Inv. No. 176.
 
Alexandros of Antioch

Ἀλέξανδρος

Antioch

2nd half of the 2nd century BC
  The "Venus de Milo" (Greek, Αφροδίτη της Μήλου, Aphroditi tis Milou, Aphrodite of Milos), today the most famous statue of Aphrodite. Circa 130-100 BC. Discovered in 1820 on the island of Melos, Greece. Believed to be a work of Alexandros of Antioch from an inscription on its plinth (now lost).

He is also thought to have made the statue of Alexander the Great found on Delos, now in the Louvre.
 
Alkamenes

Αλκαμένης (Latin, Alcamenes)

2nd half of the 5th century BC

Athens

Very little is known of his life. Pliny (Natural history, Book 36, chapter 4) wrote that he was an Athenian, although according to the Suda (Suda, Ἀλκαμένης, Adler number: alpha 1269) he was from Lemnos. The northern Aegean island was an Athenian cleruchy (colony), and thus he may have been an Athenian citizen. A more recent theory is that the text should read Αίμνιος, and that he came from the Attic district of Amnai (Αίμναι).

He was a pupil of Pheidias at the same time as Agorakritos of Paros:

"A thing, however, that is universally admitted, is the fact that he [Pheidias] was the instructor of Alcamenes, the Athenian, one of the most famous among the sculptors. By this last artist, there are numerous statues in the temples at Athens; as also, without the walls there, the celebrated Venus, known as the Aphrodite ἐν χήποις *, a work to which Phidias himself, it is said, put the finishing hand."

Pliny, Natural history, Book 36, chapter 4.

* The statue was known as Ἡ ἐν κήποις Ἀφροδίτη, after the Garden of Aphrodite, outside the city walls of Athens, in which it stood next to the Temple of Aphrodite (Lucian, Imagines, 4, 6; Pausanias, 1, 19, 2).
  Most of Alkamenes' works were statues of deities, and like Pheidias he worked in bronze, marble and chryselephantine (sheets of gold and moulded ivory attached to a wooden framework).

The Aphrodite in the Garden, near the Temple of Aphrodite, was considered to be his most beautiful work, especially the breasts, cheeks, and hands. "Few things at Athens," wrote Pausanias, "are so well worth seeing as this" He also tells us: "The form of this image is square like the images of Hermes: the inscription sets forth that Heavenly Aphrodite is the eldest of the Fates." (Pausanias, Description of Greece, Book 1, chapter 19, section 2).

He also made a colossal marble relief of Athena and Herakles, dedicated in 403 BC by Thrasyboulos in the temple of Herakles, Thebes, following the expulsion of the tyrants and the restoration of democracy in Athens.

Other works included:

A statue of Hera in a temple between Athens and Phaleron (Pausanias, 1, 1, 5).

A statue of Ares in the temple of Ares, in the Athens Agora (Pausanias, 1, 8, 4).

A chryselephantine statue of Dionysos Eleutherios in the god's sanctuary next to the Theatre of Dionysos, Athens (Pausanias, 1, 20, 3).

A sculpture group of Prokne and Itys on the Athens Acropolis (Pausanias, 1, 24, 3).

A bronze statue of Hephaestos, probably for the Hephaisteion, Athens (Cicero, de natura Deorum, 1.30, 83; Valerius Maximus, 8.11, ext. 3).

A statue of Asklepios at Mantineia (Pausanias, 8, 9, 1).

A triple-bodied Hekate (said to be the first of this type).

The western pediment of the Temple of Zeus at Olympia, with a depiction of the battle of the Centaurs and Lapiths (Pausanias, 5, 10, 2).

A bronze statue of a pentathlete.

Pausanias (Description of Greece, 1, 22, 8) mentioned "a Hermes (called Hermes of the Gateway)" in front of the Propylaia of the Athens Acropolis. An Archaistic marble herm of Hermes, discovered in Pergamon in 1903, bears the inscription:

"You will recognize the extremely beautiful statue by Alkamenes, the Hermes Before-the-Gate [Hermes Propylon]. Pergamios set it up.

Know thyself."

It was immediately concluded that this was a copy of the Hermes seen by Pausanias which by inference must have been by Alkamenes.

Another quite different marble herm of Hermes was unearthed in Ephesus in 1928, also with an inscription claiming it to be the work of Alkamenes.

See photos and further information on:
Pergamon gallery 2, page 15

A marble relief in Naples, showing Hermes, Eurydice and Orpheus in the underworld, is thought to be an Augustan period (1st century AD) copy of a Greek original of the second half of the 5th century BC, attributed to Alkamenes.

A marble statue of Hephaistos in the Ostia Archaeological Museum is thought to be a Roman period copy of an original attributed to Alkamenes.
 
Alxenor

Ἀλξήνωρ

Early 5th century BC.

From Naxos
  A grave stele of grey Boeotian marble, dated to around 490 BC, and found in Orchomenos, Boeotia, is signed at the bottom by Alxenor.

The stele has a low relief showing the full-length figure of an elderly, bearded man, wearing a himation and supporting himself on a walking stick. In his right hand he holds a grasshopper which he offers to his dog.

National Archaeological Museum, Athens.
Inv. No. 39.
 
Anaxagoras of Aegina

Ἀναξαγόρας

Early 5th century BC

Aegina
  Anaxagoras made the bronze statue of Zeus at Olympia, commissioned by the Greek states which had united against the invasion of Xerxes I of Persia (480-479 BC).  
Antenor

Ἀντήνωρ

Flourished circa 540-500 BC

Athens
  Antenor made statues of the tyrannicides Harmodius and Aristogeiton, who in 514 BC killed Hipparchos, one of the sons and successors of the tyrant Peisistratos, and then were themselves killed.

The statues, which stood in the Athenian Agora, were commissioned by the Athenians after Hipparchos' brother Hippias had been driven out of the city with the help of the Spartans in 510 BC and the establishment of democracy. They were first Greek statues known to depict real persons heroized by a recent historical event.

They were carried away to Persia by Xerxes I with other booty from his occupation of Athens in 480 BC. Around two centuries later they were returned by the Seleucid king Antiochus I Soter, but meanwhile two new statues had been made by Kritios and Nesiotes (Pausanias, Description of Greece, Book 1, chapter 8, section 5).

It has been suggested that the akroterion statue of winged Nike (515-505 BC) from the Archaic temple of Apollo in Delphi may be by Antenor.

Delphi Archaeological Museum. Inv. No. 1872.
 
Antiphanes of Argos

Ἀντιφάνης ὁ Ἀργεῖος

Late 5th century BC

Argos, northeastern Peloponnese

He was a pupil of Periklytos, and teacher of Kleon.
  Pausanias (Description of Greece, Book 10) mentions several statues by Antiphanes at Delphi:

Elatus, Apheidas, Erasus, the Dioskouri and a bronze horse, "supposed to be the wooden horse of Troy".
 
Archelaos of Priene

Ἀρχέλαος Πριηνεὐς

Son of Apollonios of Priene, Ionia

3rd or 2nd century BC
  The Apotheosis of Homer, a Hellenistic marble relief, also known as "the Relief of Archelaos", signed by Archelaos, son of Apollonios of Priene. Thought to have to have been made in Alexandria, Egypt, 3rd or 2nd century BC. Parian marble. Discovered near Rome in the 17th century.

British Museum, London.
Inv. No. GR 1819.8-12.1. Sculpture 2191.
 
Archermos of Chios

Άρχερμος (Latin, Archermus)

Mid 6th century BC

Pliny the Elder wrote that Archermos belonged to a family of sculptors from Chios: his grandfather Melas of Chios, his father Mikkiades, and his sons, Bupalus and Athenis.

Concerning Bupalus and Athenis, Pliny continues:

"... these artists executed a number of statues in the neighbouring islands; at Delos for example, with an inscription subjoined to the effect, that Chios was rendered famous not only by its vines but by the works of the sons of Archermus as well.

The people of Lasos still show a Diana [Artemis] that was made by them; and we find mention also made of a Diana at Chios, the work of their hands: it is erected on an elevated spot, and the features appear stern to a person as he enters, and joyous as he departs.

At Rome, there are some statues by these artists on the summit of the Temple of the Palatine Apollo, and, indeed, in most of the buildings that were erected by the late Emperor Augustus. At Delos and in the Isle of Lesbos there were formerly some sculptures by their father to be seen."

Pliny, Natural History, Book 36, chapter 4.
At Perseus Tufts.
  Archaic marble statue of Nike from Delos. The earliest known free-standing statue of a winged Nike, probably by Archermos of Chios, circa 550 BC. Found on Delos in 1877.

National Archaeological Museum, Athens.
Inv. No. 21.

The Scholia (commentary) of Aristophanes' Birds mentions Archermus, artist, father of Bupalus and Athenis [Athenidos], said to have been the first to represent Victory with wings:

"Only more recently have Nike and Eros acquired wings. For some say that it was Archennos [sic] the father of Boupalos and Athenis, others that it was Aglaophon the Thasian painter who made Nike winged, as Karystios of Pergamon relates."

There are varying translations of the Scholia. "Archennos" is thought to have been an error or misreading by those who copied the manuscripts.

See: John Williams White, The scholia on the Aves of Aristophanes, 574, pages 120 and 368. Ginn and company, Boston and London, 1914. At archive.org.

An inscribed statue base, found nearby the Nike at Delos, was thought to belong to the statue, leading archaeologists to believe they had discovered the first winged Nike by Archermos. However, the base was later thought to have supported a sphinx. The inscription:

Μ̣ικκι̣ά̣[δης τόδ’ ἄγ]α̣λ̣μ̣α καλὸν μ̣’ [ἀνέθηκεν καὶ υἱὸς]
Ἄ̣ρχερμ̣ος θ[υσ]ί̣η̣σιν ℎ(ε)κήβο[λον αὖθ’ ἱλάσασθαι]
οἱ Χῖοι Μέλ̣α̣ν̣ος πατρώιον ἄσ[τυ λιπόντες]

Inscription SEG 19:510.

It has been translated in several ways, for example:

"Farshooter [Apollo, receive this] fine figure [... worked by] the skills of Archermos, from the Chian Mikkiades..."

John Boardman, Greek art, page 91. Thames and Hudson, London, 2012 (4th edition).
 
Aristokles

Ἀριστοκλῆς

Crete
     
Aristokles

Ἀριστοκλῆς

Late 6th century BC.

Working in Attica?

It is uncertain (but considered unlikely) whether he was the Aristokles of Sikyon (also referred to as Aristokles the Younger), mentioned by Pausanias as the brother of Kanachos of Sikyon (the Elder), thought to have been working around the same time (around 540-508 BC).
  A grave stele of Pentelic marble, known as the "Stele of Aristion" and dated to 510 BC, found in Velanideza, Attica, is signed at the bottom "work of Aristokles" (ἔργον Ἀριστοκλέος, ergon Aristokleos). The base of the stele is also inscribed with the name of the deceased man Aristion.

The stele itself has a finely sculpted and painted relief showing the full-length figure of a hoplite wearing a helmet, chitoniskos, cuirass and greaves, and holding a spear in his left hand.

National Archaeological Museum, Athens.
Inv. No. 29.

See photos on the Aristokles page.
 
 
B
Bathycles of Magnesia

Βαθυκλής

Mid 6th century BC

Magnesia on the Maeander, Ionia
  Around 550 BC Bathycles was commissioned by the Spartans to make a marble throne for the statue of Apollo at Amyclae, with several reliefs depicting mythical scenes. The throne was described in detail by Pausanias (Description of Greece, Book 3, chapter 18).  
Bryaxis

Βρύαξις or Βρύασσις

Mid 4th century BC
  Around 350 BC Bryaxis worked on the sculptures of the Mausoleum of Halicarnassus with Leochares, Skopas, Praxiteles and perhaps Timotheos (Vitruvius, VII, Introduction, 13).

"There are also at Cnidos some other statues in marble, the productions of illustrious artists; a Father Liber [Dionysus] by Bryaxis..."

Pliny, Natural history, Book 36, chapter 4.
 
 
C
Chares of Lindos

Χάρης ὁ Λίνδιος

4th century BC

Lindos, Rhodes

A pupil of Lysippos
  He made the Colossus of Rhodes, a colossal bronze statue of the sun god Helios which stood in the city of Rhodes, one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World.  
 
D
Daidalos

(or Daedalus)

Δαίδαλος (perhaps from δαιδάλλω, to work artfully)

Mythical or legendary sculptor, architect, engineer and inventor; the archetypal "father of artists"
  For further information see the Daidalos page of the People section.  
Daidalos of Sikyon

(Daedalus of Sicyon) Δαίδαλος

5th - 4th century BC

From Sikyon, northeastern Peloponnese

Pausanias (Description of Greece, Book 6, chapter 3, section 4) wrote that he was the pupil and son of Patrocles.

Earlier modern scholars thought he lived in the 7th or 6th century BC, perhaps due to the remark by Pausanias (2, 4, 5) that the sculptors Dipoenos and Skyllis were held to be sons or pupils of Daedalus. Presumably, the reference was to the legendary Daidalos.
  "Daedalus, who is highly esteemed as a modeller in clay, made two brazen figures of youths using the body-scraper."

Pliny, Natural history, Book 34, chapter 19.

A statue of an athlete using the body-scraper (strigil) to remove oil and sweat after his victory in a contest is known as an apoxyomenos. There are a number of extant examples, though none which can with certainty attributed to Daidalos.

Pausanias (10, 9, 6) mentions statues of Nike and Arkas ("who gave Arcadia its name") by Daidalos of Sikyon at Delphi. He also mentions statues of the victorious Olympic athletes Aristodemus (6, 3, 4) and Eupolemus of Elis (6, 3, 7).
 
Damatrios

Δαμάτριος

3rd - 2nd century BC

Rhodes
  Marble relief frieze from the funerary monument for the philosopher Hieronymus of Tlos, depicting philosophers debating and scenes in the underworld. Signed by Damatrios. 3rd - 2nd century BC. Found in 1900 at Trianta, Rhodes, Greece.

Altes Museum, Berlin. Inv. No. Sk 1888.
 
Damophon

Δαμοφῶν

2nd century BC

From Messene, southwestern Peloponnese
  According to Pausanias, Damophon made several statues for the cities in the Peloponnese.

Messene: Rhea, Artemis Laphria, Asklepios and his sons, Apollo, the Muses, Herakles, Epaminondas, Tyche, Artemis Phosphoros

Aigion: the cult statue for the Temple of Eileithyia; and statues of Asklepios and Hygieia for the Asklepieion

Megalopolis: statues of Athena und Artemis for the Temple of Demeter and Kore (Persephone); a cult statue of Hermes; a cult statue of Aphrodite

Lykosoura: a colossal statue group of Demeter and Despoina (Persephone), each sitting on a throne, with Artemis and the titan Anytos.

A large number of statue fragments have been discovered on the site the sanctuary of Despoina at Lykosoura, Arkadia, including three colossal heads from a group by him depicting Demeter, Persephone, Artemis and the Titan Anytos, attributed to Damophon and dated 190-180 BC.

Head of Demeter, from the cult statue group by Damophon in the temple of Despoina at Lykosoura, Arkadia. National Archaeological Museum, Athens. Inv. No. 1734.

He also restored Pheidias' statue of Zeus at Olympia, after it had been damaged by an earthquake.
 
Demetrios of Alopece

Δημήτριος

Early 4th century BC

From Alopece, a district of Athens
  Ancient authors remarked on the lifelike realism of Demetrios' statues, in contrast to the idealized works by other sculptors such as Kresilas.  
Diogenes of Athens

Διογένης ὁ Ἀθηναῖος (Latin, Diogenes Atheniensis)

Late 1st century BC

From Athens, working in Rome during the reign of Augustus (27 BC - 14 AD).
  According to Pliny (Natural History, Book 36, chapter 4), Diogenes made sculptures, including caryatids and the pediment, for the exterior of the Pantheon in Rome, commissioned by Marcus Agrippa (circa 63-12 BC). The Pantheon was badly damaged by two fires in the city, and it was later rebuilt during the reign of Hadrian (117-138 AD). The pediment, with the dedicatory inscription of Agrippa was reused, but the enormous columns supporting it were made of porphyry imported by Hadrian from the imperial quarries in Egypt.  
Dipoenos and Skyllis

(Dipoenus and Scyllis) Δίποινος, Σκύλλις

Early 6th century

From Crete, they worked at Sikyon, northeastern Peloponnese.

Dipoenus and Scyllis were always mentioned together by ancient authors (Pliny the Elder, Pausanias). Pausanias mentions ebony statues by them and refers to them as "pupils" or "sons" of Daidalos (Description of Greece, Book 2, chapter 15, section 1), perhaps in the same way as doctors were often referred to as "sons of Asklepios", the Greek god of healing.
  "The first artists who distinguished themselves in the sculpture of marble, were Dipoenus and Scyllis, natives of the Isle of Crete. At this period the Medians were still in power, and Cyrus [circa 600-530 BC] had not begun to reign in Persia; their date being about the fiftieth Olympiad.

They afterwards repaired to Sicyon, a state which for a length of time was the adopted country of all such pursuits as these. The people of Sicyon had made a contract with them for the execution of certain statues of the gods; but, before completing the work, the artists complained of some injustice being done them, and retired to Aetolia. Immediately upon this, the state was afflicted with sterility and famine, and dreadful consternation was the result.

Upon enquiry being made as to a remedy for these evils, the Pythian Apollo [the Delphic Oracle] made answer, that Dipoenus and Scyllis must complete the statues of the gods; an object which was attained at the cost of great concessions and considerable sums of money. The statues were those of Apollo, Diana [Artemis], Hercules, and Minerva [Athena]; the last of which was afterwards struck by lightning.

Ambracia too, Argos, and Cleonæ, were filled with productions of the sculptor Dipoenus.

All these artists, however, used nothing but the white marble of the Isle of Paros..."

Pliny, Natural history, Book 36, chapter 4.

Pausanias remarked:

"On the road from Corinth to Argos is a small city Cleonae... Here there is a sanctuary of Athena, and the image is a work of Scyllis and Dipoenus. Some hold them to have been the pupils of Daedalus, but others will have it that Daedalus took a wife from Gortyn, and that Dipoenus and Scyllis were his sons by this woman."

Pausanias Description of Greece, Book 2, chapter 15, section 1.
 
 
E
Endoios

Ἔνδοιος (Latin, Endoeus)

Mid 6th century BC

Athens
  Endoios is said to have made a statue of Athena dedicated by Kallias, the contemporary of Peisistratos at Athens, around 564 BC. An inscription, written in Ionic dialect and bearing his name, has been found in Athens.

He also made an ivory statue of Athena Alea for temple of the goddess in Tegea, later taken to Rome by Augustus and set up in the Forum of Augustus.
 
Euphron

Εὔφρων

5th century BC

From Paros, he worked in Athens
  According to extant sculpture pedestals, he made votive reliefs. A bearded head of a herm dedicated in Piraeus has also survived.

Marble head of a bearded god (perhaps Hermes or Zeus), thought to be the head of a herm dedicated by Python from Abdera, Thrace, a work of the Parian sculptor Euphron. Pentelic marble. 450-440 BC. Found in a sanctuary of Eetionia in Piraeus, Greece, in 1886.

National Archaeological Museum, Athens.
Inv. No. 332.
 
Euphranor of Corinth

(also known as Euphranor of Isthmos)

Ἐυφράνωρ (the one who delights, from Ευφραίνω, to delight)

Sculptor, painter and theorist

4th century BC

From Corinth, worked mostly in Athens

He was a contemporary of Lysippos, and thought to be a pupil of the painter Aristeides of Thebes.

It has been pointed out by some modern scholars that the chronology of Pliny's account of Euphranor is confused, and that there may have been two artists with this name, one possibly the grandfather of the other.

See:

Olga Palagia, Euphranor. Brill, Leiden, 1980.

Andrew Stewart, Two Independents: Euphranor and Silanion, in One Hundred Greek Sculptors, Their Careers and Extant Works. At Perseus Digital Library.
  Several paintings and sculptures in museums, mostly Roman copies, have been associated with Euphranor.

Head of Alexander the Great. Pentelic marble. 2nd century AD "copy after a Greek original from the late 4th century BC" attributed to Euphranor (Pliny the Elder, Natural history, Book 34, chapter 78).

Barracco Museum, Rome. Inv. No. MB 157.78.

The "Alexander Rondanini" marble statue, thought to represent Alexander the Great, from a Roman copy of a statue group by Euphranor, mentioned by Pliny the Elder (Natural History, Book 34, chapter 19), depicting Philip II of Macedon on a four-horse chariot with his son Alexander at the reigns.

Glyptothek, Munich. Inv. No. GL 298.

Part of a headless marble statue of a robed Apollo, discovered near the site of the Temple of Apollo Patroos (built 4th century BC), just south of the Stoa of Zeus in the Athenian Agora, and dated to the late 4th century BC, has been tentatively identified as the sculpture by Euphranor, mentioned by Pausanias (Description of Greece, Book 1, chapter 3, section 3) as standing in the temple. It is thought that the figure originally held a lyre.

A Classicistic bronze statue of Artemis, found in Piraeus and dated to the mid 4th century BC, has been attributed to Euphranor.

Piraeus Archaeological Museum, Greece.
Inv. No. 4647.

According to Pausanias (Book 1, chapter 3, section 3), Euphranor painted the Battle of Mantinea, fought by Athens and Sparta against Thebes in 362 BC, for the Stoa of Zeus Eleutherios in the Athens Agora. The scene of the cavalry fight features Gryllus, one of the two sons of Xenophon who fought in the battle on the Athenian side, and the Theban general Epaminondas (see Athens Acropolis gallery page 8).
 
Evandros of Veroea

Εὔανδρος, Euandros

Also referred to as Evander of Veroea

Second half of the 1st century BC

From Veroea (Βέροια), Macedonia

He was the son of Evandros of Veroea, and possibly the father of Adymos of Veroea.

It is thought that Evandros and Adymos belonged to a family of sculptors who undertook commissions around Macedonia and Thessaly. They both made grave monuments and, unusually, signed their name on them; most sculptors of the time remain anonymous. This suggests that they had a high reputation in the region.
  The remains of two grave monuments with reliefs signed by Evandros have been discovered in northern Greece.

See further information and photos
on the Evandros of Veroea page.
 
 
G
Glaukias of Aegina

Γλαυκίας (Latin, Glaucias)

Early 5th century BC

From Aegina
  Glaukias made a bronze chariot and statue of Gelon, the tyrant of Syracuse and Gela, to commemorate his victory in the chariot race at the Olympic Games in 488 BC.

Also at Olympia, around 480 BC, he made bronze statues of the athletes Philon of Corcyra, Glaucus of Carystus and Theagenes of Thasos (Pausanias, Book 6, chapter 6).
 
Glykon of Athens

Γλύκων Ἀθηναῖος

Late 2nd - early 3rd century AD
  Nothing is known abour Glykon apart from an inscribed signature on the colossal "Farnese Hercules" statue in Naples: Γλύκων Ἀθηναῖοc ἐποίει (Glykon of Athens made it; the sigma (Σ) of Athinaios is rendered as C).

The statue, also known as "Hercules at rest" or the "Weary Herakles", was found in 1546 in the Baths of Caracalla, Rome. The work of the late 2nd - early 3rd century AD is thought to be a copy of a Greek bronze original perhaps made around 325 BC by Lysippos or one of his circle. Glykon may therefore have been one of many copyists making reproductions of Greek works for the Roman market. Copyists' workshops are known to have existed at places such as Baiae in the Bay of Naples.

National Archaeological Museum, Naples.
Inv. No. 6001.
Inscription IG XIV 1238 (IGUR IV 1556).
 
 
H
Hegias of Athens

(Hegias or Hegesias) Ἡγησίας

Early 5th century BC, working circa 490-460 BC

Athens

Hegias may have been the teacher of Pheidias.

The Hegias mentioned by Pliny (Natural history, 8, 42, 4 and 8, 42, 10) may be the same sculptor as the Hegesias mentioned by Lucian as being a contemporary of Kritios and Nesiotes.
  Lucian and Quintilian described the work of Hegesias as harsh, stiff and rigid, though accurate in the outline.

A bronze horse known as "il Cavallo di Vicolo delle Palme", found in 1849 in Trastevere, Rome, and now in the Capitoline Museums, is thought by some scholars to be part of the Granikos Monument statue group by Lysippos, commissioned by Alexander the Great, while others believe it may be a work of Hegias.
 
Heliodoros of Rhodes

Ἡροφῶν

Active around 100 BC

From Rhodes
  The statue group of Pan and Daphnis in Palazzo Altemps, National Museum of Rome, is thought to be a Roman period copy of an original work by Heliodoros.  
Hephaistos

Ἥφαιστος

Mythological

Hephaistos, the son of Zeus and Hera, was the Greek god of metalworkers and sculptors, the archetypal maker of fine and extravagant metal objects, including armour for gods and heroes. He was also the god of fire and volcanoes, his Roman equivalent being Vulcanus.
  See the Hephaistos page of the People section, for further information.  
Herophon

Ἡροφῶν

2nd - 1st centuries BC

From Macedonia

Son of Anaxagoras
  An inscription found in Olympia states that Herophon made a sculpture of Zeus for the Eleans and other Greeks honouring Rome.  
 
I
Iktinos

Ικτίνος (Latin, Ictinus)

Architect and sculptor

Mid 5th century BC

Athens
  Iktinos designed the Parthenon with Kallikrates (Plutarch Parallel lives, Pericles, 13.4), and the Temple of Demeter and Persephone at Eleusis (Vitruvius, The ten books on architecture, Book VII, Introduction, section 16).

Vitruvius (Book VII, Introduction, section 12) mentions that he wrote book about the Parthenon with a certain Carpion (otherwise unknown).

He was also the architect of the Temple of Apollo at Bassae (Pausanias), which features a Doric exterior, an Ionic interior, and the earliest known Corinthian column (according to Vitruvius, invented by Kallimachos), at the rear of the cella.

He may also have designed the Telesterion at Eleusis, the large hall used in the Eleusinian Mysteries.
 
 
K
Kalamis (5th century BC)

Κάλαμις (Latin, Calamis)

Possibly from Boeotia
  Kalamis made bronze, marble, and chryselephantine sculptures, and his statues of horses were particularly admired.

According to Pausanias, he made a statue of Zeus Ammon at Thebes for the poet Pindar (Description of Greece, Book 9, chapter 16, section 1), the marble cult statue of Dionysus (Book 9, chapter 20, section 4) and a Hermes Kriophoros (ram-bearer) for Tanagra, Boeotia (Book 9, chapter 22, section 1), later depicted on Roman coins of the city. In Athens he made a bronze statue of a lioness in memory of Leaina (Λέαινα, Lioness), the mistress of Aristogeiton (one of the Tyrannicides) tortured to death by Hippias, son of Peisistratus (Book 1, chapter 23). His 30 cubit high statue of Apollo was made for Apollonia Pontica (on modern Saint Ivan Island, Bulgaria; Pliny the Elder, 4.92, 34.39; Strabo, 7.6.1). His Sosandra, praised by Lucian, may have been copied for Aspasia (consort of Pericles), and copies were made during the Roman period.

Pausanias tells us that Kalamis made a statue of Apollo Alexikakos (Απολλων Ἀλεξίκακος, the Averter of Evil) which stood in front of the Temple of Apollo Patroos in the Athens Agora (Book 1, Chapter 3, Section 3): "They say this name was given to the god because by an oracle from Delphi he stayed the plague which afflicted Athens at the time of the Peloponnesian War." It stood next to another Apollo by Leochares; the statue of the god inside the temple was by Euphranor. Although the temple itself was built in the late 4th century, the reference to Apollo ending the plague in Athens during the Peloponnesian War (431-404 BC) suggests an earlier date for the statue, and thus by this Kalamis rather to his later namesake.

Part of an inscribed marble statue base, found south of the Athens Agora in 1937, and dated to after the mid 5th century BC, is inscribed with a signature of Kalamis, with a dedication by "Kallias, son of Hipponikos, of Alopeke". It has been suggested that this may be the base of Kalamis' statue of Aphrodite, which may have originally stood at the sanctuary of Aphrodite, west of the Propylaia of the Acropolis.

Inscription IG I(3) 876.

More than 20 extant Roman period statues of the "Omphalos Apollo" type are thought to be copies of a bronze statue possibly made by Kalamis around 460-450 BC. The type is named after a 2nd century AD marble statue found in 1862 at the Theatre of Dionysos, Athens, which was originally associated with a base in the shape of an omphalos found near it. The identification has since been challenged, and it has been suggested that the figure represents Apollo Alexikakos, and even that it may have been a work of Onatas, another 5th century sculptor. On the other hand, the Kassel type Apollo statues are also thought to be copies of the Apollo Alexikakos.

The torso of another "Omphalos Apollo", found in 1744 in the River Tiber near Rome, and dated to around 130-138 AD (Altes Museum, Berlin, Inv. No. Sk 510, see Antinous), was restored with the head of another statue to resemble the "Capitoline Antinous", a statue of Hermes believed at the time to be a portrait of Antinous (Palazzo Nuovo, Capitoline Museums, Rome, Inv. No. MC 741).

Around 465 BC Kalamis made a statue of Aphrodite, known as "Sosandra Aphrodite", which stood in front of the Propylaia of the Athenian Acropolis (Lucian, Imagines, 4.6). There are more than twenty extant copies, including one found at Baia, Bay of Naples, and now in the National Archaeological Museum, Naples, Inv. No. 153654.
 
Kalamis (4th century BC)

Κάλαμις (Latin, Calamis)

One of his pupils was Praxias.
     
Kallimachos

Καλλίμαχος (Latin, Callimachus)

Architect and sculptor

2nd half of the 5th century BC.

His place of birth are unknown, although Athens and Corinth have been suggested.

He was a contemporary of Agorakritos and Alkamenes.

He was nicknamed Katatexitechnos (Κατατηξιτεχνος, literally, finding fault with one's own craftsmanship; over-meticulous, perfectionist):

"Of all sculptors, though, Callimachus is the most remarkable for his surname: he always deprecated his own work, and made no end of attention to detail, so that he was called the Niggler (katatexitechnos), a memorable example of the need to limit meticulousness. He made the Laconian Women Dancing, a flawless work, but one in which meticulousness has taken away all charm. He is said also to have been a painter."

Pliny the Elder, Natural History, Book 34, chapter 92.
  Kallimachos made a "Bridal" Hera statue for the Temple of Hera at Plataia. He also made a golden lamp with a bronze chimney in the shape of a palm tree for the Erechtheion on the Athens Arcopolis, mentioned by Pausanias, who also wrote that Kallimachos was the first to use the drill in stone sculpture:

"Kallimachos made the golden lamp for the goddess [Athena in the Erechtheion] ... and though he was inferior to the foremost practitioners of the art, he was nevertheless cleverer than all, so that he became the first to drill stone and so named himself katatexitechnos, unless others did so and he adopted it for his own."

Pausanias, Description of Greece, Book 1, chapter 26, sections 6-7.

Vitruvius (Book 4, chapter 1) claimed he was the inventor of the Corinthian capital.

He may have made some of the reliefs on the balustrade around the Temple of Athena Nike on the Athens Acropolis, circa 427-421 BC (see also Paionios of Mende).

Neo-Attic relief with dancing maenads (Barracco Museum, Rome. Inv. No. MB 124), and other similar reliefs are thought to have been based on the bronze "Laconian Dancers" by Kallimachos.
 
Kallikrates

Καλλικράτης (Callicrates)

Architect and sculptor

5th century BC

Athens
  According to Plutarch (Parallel lives, Pericles, 13.4), the only ancient author to mention him, Kallikrates designed the Parthenon with Iktinos, and constructed the middle long wall between Athens and Piraeus during the period of Pericles' political power.

He was the architect of the Ionic Temple of Athena Nike (427-421 BC) on the Athens Acropolis, and perhaps the Ilissos Temple, Athens (thought to be the Temple of Artemis Agrotera, circa 435-430 BC).

Athenian decrees on a marble stele, circa 427-424 BC, concerning the Athena Nike Temple: the selection and payment of the priestess, and the construction of a door for the sanctuary as well as a temple and stone altar to be built according to the specifications of Kallikrates.
Inscription IG I3 35. Athens Epigraphical Museum (EM 8116). Now in the Acropolis Museum, Athens.

Pausanias on the temple of Artemis Agrotera, on the Ilissos, Athens: Pausanias, Description of Greece, Book I, Chapter 19, section 6.


Spon and Wheler;

Stuart and Revett, The Antiquities of Athens Volume I. London, 1762;

Ione Mylonas Shear, Kallikrates. Hesperia, pages 375-424, plates 86-91. American School of Classical Studies at Athens.
 
Kanachos of Sikyon (The Elder)

Κάναχος (Latin, Canachus)

Late 6th - early 5th century BC.

From Sikyon, northwestern Peloponnese.

There were apparently two sculptors named Kanachos, referred to by modern scholars as the Elder and the Younger (see below). They may have been grandfather and grandson. Pausanias does not distinguish between them, but writes that a Kanachos made two statues of Apollo (now dated to around 500 BC), and elsewhere of a Kanachos who was a pupil of Polykleitos of Argos who is thought to have been working around 460-420 BC.

Pliny the Elder's several mentions of the name are equally vague. It is uncertain which Kanachos he is referring to when he writes; "I find it stated that Canachus, an artist highly praised among the statuaries in bronze, executed some works also in marble." (Pliny, Natural history, Book 36, chapter 4)

He was the brother of sculptor Aristokles of Sikyon (Pausanias, Book 6, Chapter 9, section 1), referred to as Aristokles the Younger, thought to have been working around 540-508 BC.
  Kanachos the Elder is said to have made two well-known statues of Apollo, one in cedar wood for the temple of Ismenian Apollo in Thebes, and a bronze for the Temple of Apollo in Didyma (Pausanias, 9, 10, 2). The Didyma statue of Apollo Philesios (Pliny, Book 34, chapter 19), cast in Aegina around 500 BC, is thought to be the figure shown on coins of Miletus, the so-called "Kanachos Relief" found in the Roman theatre of Miletus (Pergamon Museum, Berlin. Inv. No. Sk 1592) and a bronze statuette in the British Museum (Inv. No. 1824,0405.1. Bronze 209).

He also made a chryselephantine cult statue of seated Aphrodite for her sanctuary in Sikyon (Pausanias, 2, 10, 3-4), and he (or Kanachos the Younger) made a statue of Bycelus, the first Sikyonian to win the boys' boxing match at Olympia (Pausanias, 6, 13, 7).

Cicero, discussing the "systematic development" of sculpture by comparing the works of Kanachos, Kalamis, Myron and Polykleitos, commented that "the figures of Canachus are too stiff and formal to resemble life" (Cicero, Brutus, section 70).
 
Kanachos of Sikyon (the Younger)

Κάναχος (Latin, Canachus)

Flourished around 400 BC (95th Olympiad, Pliny, Natural history, Book 34, chapter 19).

From Sikyon, northwestern Peloponnese.

A pupil of Polykleitos of Argos (Pausanias, 6, 13, 7), and perhaps the grandson of Kanachos the Elder.
  Kanachos the Younger, with Patrokles, made statues of the Spartan commanders Epicydidas and Eteonicus, set up in Delphi to commemorate their victory over the Athenians at the naval Battle of Aegospotami in 405 BC (Pausanias, 10, 9, 10).  
Kephisodotos the Elder

Κηφισόδοτος

(Kephisodotos I, or Cephisodotus the Elder)

Flourished around 400-360 BC

Athens

Perhaps the father or uncle of Praxiteles, and grandfather of Kephisodotos the Younger and Timarchos.
  Kephisodotos the Elder made a statue of the goddess Eirene (Peace) holding the infant Ploutos (Wealth), set up on the Areopagus, Athens, circa 380-370 BC. A Roman period copy is in the Glyptothek, Munich. Inv. No. 219. There are also fragments in various collections, including a part of the Ploutos figure in the National Archaeological Museum, Athens.

"It was a clever idea of these artists to place Wealth in the arms of Fortune, and so to suggest that she is his mother or nurse. Equally clever was the conception of Cephisodotus, who made the image of Peace for the Athenians with Wealth in her arms." Pausanias, Book 9, chapter 16, section 2.

A Herm of Hermes, the base of a statue of Hermes carrying the infant Dionysus, in the Museum of the Ancient Agora, Athens (Inv. No. S 33), is thought to be a Roman copy of a statue group by Kephisodotos the Elder.

The bronze Classicistic "Piraeus Athena" statue has been attributed to either Kephisodotos or Euphranor. Piraeus Archaeological Museum. Inv. No. 4646.

The "Artemide di Kephisodotos", found in 1873 in the Horti Vettiani, Rome, is perhaps a Roman copy of the statue of Artemis by Kephisodotos. Palazzo dei Conservatori, Capitoline Musemus, Rome. Inv. No. MC 1123.
 
Kephisodotos the Younger

Κηφισόδοτος ο Νεότερος

(Kephisodotos II, or Cephisodotus the Younger)

4th - 3rd century BC

Athens

He was the son of Praxiteles (Pliny, 36, 4), brother of Timarchos and grandson of Kephisodotos the Elder.
  "Cephisodotus, the son of Praxiteles, inherited his father's talent. There is, by him, at Pergamus, a splendid Group of Wrestlers, a work that has been highly praised, and in which the fingers have all the appearance of being impressed upon real flesh rather than upon marble. At Rome there are by him, a Latona [Leto], in the Temple of the Palatium; a Venus [Aphrodite], in the buildings that are memorials of Asinius Pollio; and an Aesculapius [Asklepios], and a Diana [Artemis], in the Temple of Juno situated within the Porticos of Octavia [Porticus Octaviae, Rome]."

Pliny, Natural history, Book 36, chapter 4.

The Statue of Menander (Athenian playwright, circa 342-290 BC) at the Theatre of Dionysos, Athens, mentioned by Pausanias, Description of Greece, Book I, Chapter 21, section 1.

A pedestal, 291/290 BC, discovered in 1862 at the Theatre of Dionysos, bears an inscription with the name "Menandros", below which are the names "Kephisodotos the Younger and Timarchos, sons of Praxiteles".

The pedestal is displayed at the Theatre of Dionysos, with a modern composite cast made from fragments of Roman period copies (in Naples, Venice). More than 70 copies have survived.

With his brother Timarchos he also made a statue of Enyo which stood in the Athens Agora (Pausanias, 1, 8, 4).

The base of an early 3rd century BC dedication to Athena by Philoumene, daughter of Leosthenes, found at the Athenian Acropolis, is signed by Kephisodotos the Younger.

Acropolis Museum. Inv. No. Acr. Y 3627.
 
Klearchos of Rhegion

(Clearchus of Rhegium) Κλέαρχος

Early 5th century BC

Rhegion (Rhegium), southwest Italy

He was a pupil of the Corinthian Eucheirus and the teacher of the sculptor Pythagoras, who was a contemporary of Myron and Polykleitos.
  The only known work by Klearchos was a statue of Zeus at Sparta, made from plates of metal hammered bronze plates riveted together (Pausanias, Description of Greece, Book 6, chapter 4).  
Kresilas

(Cresilas) Κρησίλας

From Kydonia, Crete.

Circa 480-410 BC

He was a student of Dorotheos in Argos, and worked with him at Delphi and Hermione.

Between 450 and 420 BC he worked mainly in Athens as a follower of the school of Myron, known for its idealistic portraiture.
  Around 440-430 BC Kresilas made a bronze statue of Pericles, which stood on the Athens Acropolis and is mentioned by Pausanias and Pliny the Elder.

"On the Athenian Acropolis is a statue of Pericles, the son of Xanthippus, and one of Xanthippus himself, who fought against the Persians at the naval battle of Mycale. But that of Pericles stands apart, while near Xanthippos stands Anacreon of Teos..."

Pausanias, Description of Greece, Book I, Chapter 25, section 1. At Perseus Digital Library.

"Cresilas executed ... the Olympian Pericles, well worthy of its title: indeed, it is one of the marvellous adjuncts of this art, that it renders men who are already celebrated even more so"

Pliny the Elder, The Natural History, Book 34, chapter 19. At Perseus Digital Library.

The base of the statue has been discovered at the Acropolis. It is thought that the three extant marble busts of Pericles are Roman copies of this statue:

"The Townley Pericles". 2nd century AD. From Hadrian's Villa, Tivoli.
British Museum, London.
Inv. No. GR 1805.7-3.91. Cat. Sculpture 549.

Marble bust of Pericles wearing a Corinthian helmet. Found on Lesbos.
Altes Museum, Berlin. Inv. No. Sk 1530.

Herm of Pericles bearing the inscription "Pericles, son of Xanthippus, Athenian".
Vatican Museums. Inv. No. 269.

He made a statue of a wounded Amazon for the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus in a competition with Pheidias and Polykleitos, which may have been a model for several extant copies.

He made a statue of Diomedes according to the description by Homer.

He may also have made the statue of Athena, copies of which are known as "the Velletri type".
 
Kritios

Κριτίος

Early 5th century BC

Athens

He was probably a pupil of Antenor.
  Kritios and Nesiotes made the statue pair of the "Tyrannicides" (Τυραννοκτόνοι) Harmodius and Aristogeiton, set up in the Athenian Agora in 477 BC to replace those made Antenor, which had been taken as booty by Xerxes I of Persia in 480 BC (Pausanias, Description of Greece, Book 1, chapter 8, section 5). The Roman period copies of the two statues, now in Naples, may have been made from plaster casts of the originals in a copyist's workshop in Baiae in the Bay of Naples, where in 1952 part of a cast of the head of Aristogeiton (Baiae Museum. 174.479) was discovered.

National Archaeological Museum, Naples.
Inv. No. G 103 and G 104.

The marble statue of a nude youth known as "the Kritian Boy" (or "Kritios Boy"), found on the Athens Acropolis in 1865 (the head in 1888), has been named due to similarities of the head to that of the statue of Harmodius (the younger of the tyrannicides). Dated around 480 BC, it is considered to be the earliest explicit example of Classical sculpture and a radical departure from Archaic kouros statue types (see, for example the colossal "Isches Kouros", "the Ram-Carrier of Thasos" and "the Strangford Apollo", on Samos gallery page 4).

Acropolis Museum, Athens. Inv. No. Acr. 698.
 
 
L
Leochares

Λεοχάρης (Lion’s Grace)

4th century BC

Athens
  Marble head of Alexander the Great. 340-330 BC. Thought to be an original work of Leochares Found in 1886 near the Erechtheion of the Athens Acropolis.

Acropolis Museum, Athens. Inv. No. Acr. 1331.

Leochares made a statue of Apollo which stood next to one by Kalamis in front of the Temple of Apollo Patroos (Paternal) in the Athenian Agora (Pausanias, Book 1, Chapter 3, Section 3). He also made a statue of group of Zeus and the People at the sanctuary of Zeus and Athena at Piraeus (Pausanias, 1, 3, 3).

Around 350 BC he worked on the reliefs of the Mausoleum of Halicarnassus with Bryaxis, Praxiteles, Skopas and perhaps Timotheos.

"For men whose artistic talents are believed to have won them the highest renown for all time, and laurels forever green, devised and executed works of supreme excellence in this building. The decoration and perfection of the different facades were undertaken by different artists in emulation of each other: Leochares, Bryaxis, Scopas, Praxiteles, and, some think, Timotheus."

(Vitruvius, The ten books on architecture, Book VII, Introduction, section 13)

According to Vitruvius, either Leochares or Timotheos made a colossal acrolithic statue of Ares at the Temple of Ares in Halicarnassus (II, 8, 11).

With Lysippos he made a statue group depicting Alexander and Krateros hunting lions, which was dedicated by Krateros at Delphi.
 
Lykios

Λύκιος (Latin, Lycius)

Architect and sculptor

Mid 5th century BC

Athens

Son of Myron of Eleutherae (Pliny, Natural History, 34, 79; Pausanias, 5, 22).
  Lykios made bronze sculptures of horses and men for a cavalry monument, and was an architect on the Athenian Acropolis.  
Lysippos

Λύσιππος (Latin, Lysippus)

Circa 390-305 BC

Born at Sikyon, northeastern Peloponnese.

An autodidact, he was originally a metal smith, became a prolific sculptor, and later head of the school of Argos and Sikyon.

He was the official sculptor of Alexander the Great, and, according to Plutarch, the only permitted to portray him in statues (Plutarch, Moralia, 335).

His brother Lysistratos was also a renowned sculptor.
  Lysippos was mentioned and praised by several ancient authors (Xenokrates, Plutarch, Pausanias, Velleius Paterculus, Pliny). It has been estimated that he may have produced produced over 1,500 statues which were set up all around Greek world (Alyzia, Argos, Athens, Corinth, Delphi, Dion, Mount Helikon, Kos, Lampsakos, Lindos, Megara, Olympia, Pharsalos, Rhodes, Samos, Thebes, Thermon, Thespiae, Sikyon, Taranto). Many were later taken to Rome.

None of his works appears to have survived entire, and no extant sculpture or fragment has been identified beyond doubt to be by him. He had a large workshop, many assistants and pupils, and some of his works were copied by others during his lifetime. Several Roman period statues are thought to be copies of his works.

He made several portraits of Alexander the Great from boyhood, and is thought to have made the original iconic sculpture portrait of Alexander which became the model for many copies into the Roman Imperial period.

He made a statue of Aristotle, commissioned by Alexander around 330 BC, which is also thought to have been the model for a number of extant copies (Louvre, Palazzo Altemps, Rome, National Archaeological Museum, Athens).

The Granikos Monument (or Granicus Monument), a bronze equestrian group of 25 (or more) figures, commissioned by Alexander, made by Lysippos to commemorate members of Alexander's Companion royal guard who died at the Battle of the Granicus River in 334 BC, and erected at Dion, Macedonia around 330 BC. Taken to Rome by Quintus Cecilius Metellus in 146 BC.

A 1st century BC bronze statuette of Alexander the Great on horseback, one of a group of three similar equestrian bronzes found in Herculaneum, is thought to be a copy from the Granikos Monument.

National Archaeological Museum, Naples, Italy.
Inv. No. 4996.

With Leochares he made a statue group depicting Alexander and Krateros hunting lions, which was dedicated by Krateros at Delphi.

"The Farnese Hercules", a colossal statue of the god at rest, discovered in the Baths of Caracalla, Rome, and now in the National Archaeological Museum, Naples (Inv. No. 6001), is also thought to be a copy of a Lysippean original, perhaps the Herakles from Sikyon made around 325 BC.

"The Atalante Hermes", a 2nd century AD marble funerary statue of a nude youth depicted as Hermes, found at Atalante, Phtiotis, is thought to be a copy of a work by Lysippos.

National Archaeological Museum, Athens.
Inv. No. 240.

A statue of Hermes in the Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna is thought to be copy of a work by Lysippos, which may also have been the model for a bronze statue of Hermes resting found in Heculaneum, now in the National Archaeological Museum, Naples.
 
Lysistratos of Sikyon

Λυσίστρατος Σικυώνιος

Working circa 328-325 BC

Brother of Lysippos, from Sikyon, northeastern Peloponnese.
  According to Pliny, Lysistratos was the first to make moulds of faces from plaster masks, to make plaster casts of sculptures, and make realistic rather than idealized portraits:

"The first man to mould a likeness in plaster from the face itself, and to institute the method of making corrections upon a casting produced by pouring wax into this plaster mould was Lysistratus of Sicyon, brother of Lysippus, of whom we have already spoken. He introduced the practice of making likenesses, for before him they used to try to make portraits as beautiful as possible. He also invented the technique of taking casts from statues, and this practice increased to such an extent that no figures or statues were made without using clay."

Pliny the Elder, Natural history, Book 34, chapter 153.
 
Lysos

Λῦσος

From Macedonia
  Pausanias wrote that he made a statue at Olympia of the Olympic victor Kriannios of Elis, who won a victory in the race in armour (Pausanias, Description of Greece, Book 6, chapter 17).  
 
M
Melas of Chios

Μελάς

Late 7th - early 6th century BC

Chios

A member, perhaps the first, of a family of sculptors from Chios. He was the father of Mikkiades, grandfather of Archermos of Chios, great-grandfather of Bupalus and Athenis.

"... in succession to him, his son Micciades, and his grandson Archermus; whose sons, Bupalus and Athenis, afterwards attained the highest eminence in the art."

Pliny, Natural history, Book 34, chapter 153.
     
Menas of Pergamon

Μενάς Περγαμηνὸς

Mid 3rd century BC
  A marble statue base with the inscribed signature Μηνᾶς Αἴαντος Περγαμηνὸς ἐποίησεν (Menas Aiantos Pergamenos epoisen, Menas son of Aias of Pergamon made it) was found along with an over life-size marble statue of Alexander the Great, dated to the mid 3rd century BC, at Magnesia ad Sipylum, Lydia (Manisa, Turkey) in 1895. Istanbul Archaeological Museum. Statue Inv. No. 709. Cat. Mendel 536. Marble base with signature Inv. No. 744. Cat. Mendel 537. Inscription TAM V,2 1358.  
Menestratos

Μενέστρατος

4th century BC

Born in Athens
  "At Rome... A Hercules, too, by Menestratus, is greatly admired; and there is a Hecate of his at Ephesus, in the Temple of Diana [Artemis] there, behind the sanctuary. The keepers of the temple recommend persons, when viewing it, to be careful of their eyes, so remarkably radiant is the marble."

Pliny, Natural history, Book 36, chapter 4.

Tatian mentions him as the maker of a statue of a poetess named Learchis (Adv. Graec., 52, page 113, Worth.)
 
Mnesikles

Μνησικλής

5th century BC

Athens
  According to Plutarch he designed Propylaia of the Athens Acropolis, and may have also been the architect of the Erechtheion.

Plutarch, Parallel Lives, Pericles, 13.7-8.

Nothing is known of his life or other work.
 
Myron

(Myron of Eleutherae) Μύρων

Mid 5th century BC, working circa 480-440 BC

He was an Athenian, was born in Eleutherae, on the border between Attica and Boeotia.

Like Polykleitos, he was a pupil of Ageladas of Argos (Pliny, Natural History, Book 34, chapter 57).
  "As to Myron, who is so highly praised for his works in bronze, there is by him at Smyrna, An Old Woman Intoxicated, a work that is held in high estimation."

Pliny, Natural history, Book 36, chapter 4.

"The Townley Discobolus", a 2nd century AD Roman period marble statue of a discus thrower, now in the British Museum, is thought to be copy of a bronze statue by Myron (see photo below).
 
 
N
Naukydes of Argos

Ναυκύδης

Late 5th - early 4th century BC

From Argos, northeastern Peloponnese.

He was a pupil of Polykleitos, whose son Polykleitos the Younger he later taught.
  Naukydes' works include: a chryselephantine statue of Hebe for the Temple of Hera in Argos; statues of Hecate, Hermes, the poet Erinna, and Phrixus; a Discobolos (discus thrower), known as the Discobolus of Naukydes, mentioned by Pliny.

Marble statue of Hermes. 2nd century AD copy of a late 5th century BC original attributed to Naukydes. Found in Troezen.

National Archaeological Museum, Athens.
Inv. No. 243.
 
Nesiotes

Νησιώτης

Early 5th century BC

From Argos, northeastern Peloponnese.

He was a pupil of Polykleitos, whose son Polykleitos the Younger he later taught.
  Kritios and Nesiotes made the statue pair of the "Tyrannicides" (Τυραννοκτόνοι) Harmodius and Aristogeiton, set up in the Athenian Agora in 477 BC to replace those made Antenor, which had been taken as booty by Xerxes I of Persia in 480 BC (Pausanias, Description of Greece, Book 1, chapter 8, section 5).

See Kritios above.
 
 
P
Paionios of Mende

Παιώνιος

2nd half of the 5th century BC

From Mende, Halkidiki
  Paionios made a statue of Nike and the akroteria for the Temple of Zeus in Olympia. The dedicatory inscription of the Nike sculpture is in Olympia Museum:

"The Messenians and Naupaktians dedicated this to Olympian Zeus as a tithe from their enemies. Paionios of Mende made it and was victorious in making the akroteria for the temple."

Olympia 5, No. 259.

The Nike was also mentioned by Pausanias:

"The Dorian Messenians who at one time received Naupaktos from the Athenians dedicated at Olympia the image of Nike on a pillar. It is the work of Paionios of Mende, made from spoils taken from the enemy, I think from the war with the Akarnanians and the people of Oiniadai.

The Messenians themselves say than their dedication resulted from their exploit on the island of Sphakteria along with the Athenians, and that they did not inscribe the name of the enemy through fear of the Spartans, whereas they had no fear at all of the people of Oiniadai and Akarnania."

Pausanias, Description of Greece, Book 5, chapter 26.

He is also thought to have worked on the frieze for the Temple of Apollo at Bassae (now in the British Museum), and the reliefs on the balustrade around the Temple of Athena Nike on the Athens Acropolis, circa 427-421 BC (see also Kallimachos).
 
Pasiteles

Πασιτέλης

Also referred to as Pasiteles the Younger

Sculptor and art historian

1st century BC

A Roman citizen from Magna Graecia, Italy, working in Rome in the 2nd century BC.
  "... Pasiteles, the artist who wrote five books on the most celebrated works throughout the world.

Born upon the Grecian shores of Italy [Magna Graecia], and presented with the Roman citizenship granted to the cities of those parts, Pasiteles constructed the ivory statue of Jupiter which is now in the Temple of Metellus *, on the road to the Campus Martius.

It so happened, that being one day at the Docks, where there were some wild beasts from Africa, while he was viewing through the bars of a cage a lion which he was engaged in drawing, a panther made its escape from another cage, to the no small danger of this most careful artist.

He executed many other works, it is said, but we do not find the names of them specifically mentioned."

Pliny, Natural history, Book 36, chapter 4.

* The Temples of Jupiter Stator and Juno Regina in Rome. In the sanctuary, entered by the Porticus Metellus built by Quintus Caecilius Metellus Macedonicus, several artworks were displayed, many taken as war booty from Greece. Emperor Augustus later renamed it Porticus Octaviae after his sister Octavia Minor.
 
Pheidias

(Phidias) Φειδίας

Circa 480-430 BC

Athens

A sculptor, painter and architect, Pheidias was the son of Charmides of Athens. He was a pupil of Hegias and Hageladas, and a friend of Pericles.

Pheidias is thought to have been the prime mover in the design of Classical Greek sculpture, and is considered by many to be the greatest Ancient Greek sculptor.

"Among all nations which the fame of the Olympian Jupiter has reached, Phidias is looked upon, beyond all doubt, as the most famous of artists."

Pliny, Natural history, Book 36, chapter 4.

According to Plutarch (Life of Pericles, 13), he was accused by enemies of Pericles of stealing gold intended for the Athena Parthenos statue, and of impiety for portraying Pericles and himself among the figures of the Amazonomachy on the statue's shield (see the "Strangford Shield" on Athens Acropolis gallery page 13). Having been warned by Pericles to carefully weigh the gold, Pheidias was able to disprove the charge of theft, but he was found guilty of impiety, and died while in prison.

According to other sources, mentioned by scholiasts, Pheidias was banished from Athens and was condemned to death and executed while in Elis after completing the statue of Zeus at Olympia.
  Pheidias was responsible for the overall planning of the Periclean Acropolis building project and designed and made many of the sculptures for the new buildings, including the chryselephantine Athena Parthenos statue for the Parthenon (Pausanias, Description of Greece, Book 1, chapter 24, sections 5-7; Pliny, Natural history, Book 36, chapter 4), as well as the colossal bronze Athena Promachos which stood between the Parthenon and the Propylaia.

(See an illustrated article on a copy of the Athena Parthenos statue from Pegamon.)

Around 432 BC he made the colossal chryselephantine statue of Zeus at Olympia (Pliny, Natural history, Book 36, chapter 4), later to be included as one of Philo of Byzantium's Seven Wonders of the World. It was later taken to Constantinople.

In 1958 archaeologists at Olympia discovered the remains of a building containing fragments of ivory and semi-precious stone, terracotta moulds and other casting equipment, as well as a small, black-glaze drinking cup inscribed "Φειδίου εἰμί" (Pheidiou eimi, I belong to Phidias), from which they concluded that the building was the workshop of Pheidias, mentioned by Pausanias (Description of Greece, Book 5, chapter 15).

No extant sculpture can be attributed beyond doubt to Pheidias, although many Roman period statues and statuettes are thought to be copies of his works.

According to Pausanias (Description of Greece, Book 1, chapter 3, section 4), Pheidias made the marble statue of Kybele, the Mother of the Gods, in the Metroon in the Athens Agora. The extant remains of a later Metroon, a stoa which housed the sanctuary of the goddess and the city archives, dated to the mid 2nd century BC, around the time when Pausanias was in Athens and reported seeing the statue. It is thought that the statue depicted the goddess enthroned, with a lion attendant, and holding a tympanon (drum). Several dozen dedicatory reliefs of this image, perhaps based on the statue, have been found in the Agora.

Two almost identical Roman period, reconstructed marble statues of Athena in Dresden (Skulpturensammlung, Albertinum) were controversially identified by the German archaeologist Adolf Furtwängler as copies of Pheidias' bronze "Athena Lemnia" (450-440 BC) from the Athens Acropolis, mentioned by Pausanias as "the best worth seeing of all the works of Phidias" (Description of Greece, Book 1, chapter 28, section 2) and Lucian (Imagines, 4 and 6).
 
Polyeuktos

Πολευκτος (Polyeuctos)

Early 3rd century BC

Athens

A pupil of Lysippos
  Polyeuktos made a bronze statue of Demosthenes which was erected near the Altar of the Twelve Gods in the Athenian Agora in 280 BC, 42 years after the orator's death.  
Polykles

Πολυκλής

Flourished 370 BC

Athens

He was a contemporary of Kephisodotos the Elder and Leochares.
  Pliny mentions statues of Olympian winners (Natural History, Book 35, chapter 8) and "a splendid statue of Hermaphroditus" (34, 19).

Pausanias (Description of Greece, Book 6, chapter 4) also mentions an Athenian Polycles as the maker of a statue of a winner in the pankration.
 
Polykleitos

(or Polyklitos, Polycleitus, Polyclitus)

Also referred to as Polykleitos of Argos or Polykleitos the Elder.

Πολύκλειτος (much-renowned)

5th century BC; thought to have been born circa 480 BC, and to have been active around 460-420 BC.

From Argos (Plato, Protagoras, 311 c) or Sikyon (Pliny, Natural history, Book 34, chapter 55), northeastern Peloponnese.

Like Myron, he was a pupil of the sculptor Hageladas of Argos, who may have taught at Argos.

His son, Polykleitos the Younger, also made statues of athletes, but became better known as an architect; he designed the great theatre at Epidauros.
  Polykleitos made a statue of a wounded Amazon for the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus in a competition with Kresilas and Pheidias, which may have been a model for several extant copies.

His other works include: bronze sculptures of young, athletic, male nudes known as the Doryphoros (spear carrier), Diskophoros (discus bearer) and Diadumenos (diadem-bearer; an athlete tying a victor's headband), of which there are several Roman period marble copies; a Hermes, later set up in Lysimachia, Thrace (Pliny); a sculpture group known as Astragalizontes (boys playing knuckle-bones), which Emperor Titus set up in a place of honour in his atrium. The colossal chryselephantine statue of Hera he made for the Heraion of Argos, around 420 BC, may have been his final work.

He wrote a treatise, known as the Kanon (or Canon), concerning the ideal design of a male nude according to his theories of aesthetics, mathematical proportions, rhythm, balance and symmetry. The work has not survived but is known from references by other ancient authors.

His school continued into the early 3rd century BC, and his work and theories attracted many disciples, 20 of which are mentioned by Pausanias and Pliny, including: Alexios, Argios, Aristeides, Asopodoros, Athenodoros, Daidalos, Demeas, Dinon, Kolotes, Naukydes, Patroklos and Phrynon.

The marble head in Berlin, known as the "Polykletian Diskophoros", is thought to be a Roman period copy, circa 140 AD, of a bronze statue made by Polykleitos around 460 BC.

Altes Museum, Berlin. Inv. No. Sk 1833.
 
Polymedes of Argos

Πολυμεδες Αργειος

6th century BC

Argos, northeastern Peloponnese
  The base of one of the twin marble kouroi statues, excavated at Delphi and dated to around 580 BC, is inscribed [ΠΟΛΥ]ΜΕΔΕΣ ΕΠΟΙΗΣΕΗ ΑΡΓΕΙΟΣ ([Poly]medes the Argive made me). The statues were originally identified as the brothers Kleobis and Biton of Argos. Herodotus related the legend of the brothers and wrote that "the Argives made and dedicated at Delphi statues of them as being the best of men". (Histories, Book 1, chapter 31)

However, this identification has been questioned, and according to one theory the statues may depict the Dioskouroi.
 
Praxias and Androsthenes

Πραξίας, Ἀνδροσθένης

4th century BC

According to Pausanias (Description of Greece, Book 10, chapter 19, section 4), both were Athenians: Praxias was a pupil of Kalamis, and Androsthenes a pupil of Eucadmus.
  Pausanias wrote that Praxias and Androsthenes sculpted the pediments of the Late Classical Temple of Apollo at Delphi, completed around 330 BC. The reliefs on the east pediment (above the entrance) depicted Artemis, Leto, Apollo, Muses and a setting Sun; the west pediment reliefs depicted Dionysus with the Thyiads. Praxias died during the twenty-year construction of the temple, and his work was completed by Androsthenes.

The sculptures of the east pediment have not been discovered, and may have been taken to Rome. Fragments of the west pediment reliefs, depicting Dionysus with the Thyiads, are in the Delphi Archaeological Museum, Greece.
 
Praxiteles

Πραξιτέλης (he who finishes his works)

4th century BC

From Athens

He was the son of the sculptor Kephisodotos the Elder, and father of Kephisodotos the Younger and Timarchos.
  Praxiteles made several statues of deities, including Leto, Apollo, Artemis, Aphrodite, Hermes and satyrs, working in Parian marble. His figures were usually nude and depicted as young and graceful. Some of his works were coloured by the painter Nikias.

He made the cult statues of Demeter, Persephone and Iacchus (Iakchos) for the Temple of Demeter in Athens. "An inscription in Attic letters on the wall declares that they are works of Praxiteles" (Pausanias, Description of Greece, Book 1, chapter 2, section 4).

Hellenistic and Roman period copies of his works which have survived include: Hermes with the infant Dionysus, made for the temple of Hera at Olympia, circa 340 BC (Archaeological Museum of Olympia); Apollo Sauroktonos (Apollo the Lizard Slayer, at the Louvre, Vatican Museums, and National Museums Liverpool); Aphrodite of Knidos (Museo Pio-Clementino, Vatican Museums); Apollo Lykeios or Lycian Apollo, the original was displayed in the Athenian Lykeion (Lyceum gymnasium), where Aristotle established his Peripatetic school of philosophy.

Around 350 BC he worked on the sculptures of the Mausoleum of Halicarnassus with Bryaxis, Leochares, Skopas and perhaps Timotheos (Vitruvius, VII, Introduction, 13).

A marble head, thought to be from the cult statue of Artemis Brauronia made by Praxiteles around 330 BC for the sanctuary of the goddess on the Athenian Acropolis, is in the Acropolis Museum. Inv. No. Acr 1352.

Praxiteles is credited with creating a statue of Dionysus, around 325-300 BC, known from Roman period copies of the "Dionysos-Sardanapalos" type.

A 4th century BC base for statues of Kleiokrateia and her husband Spoudias, found in the Athens Agora, is inscribed with the signature of Praxiteles and a dedication to the goddesses Demeter and Kore. Agora Museum, Athens. Inv. No. I 4165.

Statues of the "Small Herculaneum Woman" type, named after several examples found at Herculaneum, are thought to be copies of an original made in the workshop of Praxiteles. Another example, from Derveni (ancient Lete, Macedonia), is in the Thessaloniki Archaeological Museum.
 
Pyrrhos of Athens

Πύρρος (Latin, Pyrrhus)

5th century BC

Athens
  Pliny (Natural History, Book 34, chapter 19) mentions bronze statues of Hygieia and Minerva (Athena) by Pyrrhos.

A semicircular statue base, found between the southeast corner of the Propylaia and the Sanctuary of Artemis Brauronia of the Athens Acropolis in 1839 and dated around 433 BC, bears the inscription:

Ἀθεναῖοι τε͂ι Ἀθεναίαι τε͂ι Ὑγιείαι.
Πύρρος ἐποίησεν Ἀθεναῖος.

The Athenians to Athena and Hygieia.
Pyrrhus the Athenian made it.

Inscription IG I(3) 506.
In situ, Acropolis, Athens. Inv. No. ΜΑ 13259.

The base abutted the Propylaia and faced an altar, perhaps that of Athena Hygieia herself. It held a bronze statue of Athena Hygieia, the goddess of health.

It thought that this may have been the statue mentioned by Plutarch (Pericles, 13.7-8) as having been set up by Pericles after a worker at the Acropolis recovered from an accident (see Athens Acropolis gallery page 10).
 
Pythagoras of Rhegion

(Pythagoras of Rhegium) Πυθαγόρας

5th century BC

From Rhegion (Rhegium), southwest Italy

He was a pupil of Klearchos of Rhegion and a contemporary of Myron and Polykleitos.

Pliny (Natural History, Book 34, chapter 19) mentions two sculptors named Pythagoras: Pythagoras of Rhegion and Pythagoras of Samos. Some scholars have suggested that they were the same person, and that he may have been one of the exiled Samians who moved to Zankle in the early 5th century BC, during the rule of the tyrant Anaxilas in Rhegion.

Diogenes Laertius, in his life of Pythagoras the mathematician and philosopher, mentions a sculptor named Pythagoras.

Pausanias (Description of Greece, Book 9, Chapter 35, section 7) mentions a painter named Pythagoras from Paros.
  Pythagoras of Rhegion appears to have specialized in portraits of victorious athletes.

"Pythagoras of Rhegium, in Italy, excelled him in the figure of the Pancratiast which is now at Delphi, and in which he also surpassed Leontiscus.

Pythagoras also executed the statue of Astylos, the runner, which is exhibited at Olympia; that of a Libyan boy holding a tablet, also in the same place; and a nude male figure holding fruit.

There is at Syracuse a figure of a lame man by him: persons, when looking at it, seem to feel the very pain of his wound.

He also made an Apollo, with the serpent pierced by his arrows; and a Player on the Lyre, known as the Dicaeus, from the fact that, when Thebes was taken by Alexander the Great, a fugitive successfully concealed in its bosom a sum of gold.

He was the first artist who gave expression to the sinews and the veins, and paid more attention to the hair."

"Sostratus, it is said, was the pupil of Pythagoras of Rhegium, and his sister's son."

Pliny, Natural History, Book 34, chapter 19.

Pausanias mentions a statue of Leontiscus, a wrestler from Sicily, by Pythagoras of Rhegion:

"The statue was made by Pythagoras of Rhegium, an excellent sculptor if ever there was one. They say that he studied under Clearchus, who was likewise a native of Rhegium, and a pupil of Eucheirus. Eucheirus, it is said, was a Corinthian, and attended the school of Syadras and Chartas, men of Sparta."

Pausanias, Description of Greece, Book 6, Chapter 4, section 4.

"The statue of the Mantinean, Protolaus the son of Dialces, who won the boxing-match for boys, was made by Pythagoras of Rhegium."

Pausanias, Book 6, Chapter 6, section 1.

"The statue of the Mantinean, Protolaus the son of Dialces, who won the boxing-match for boys, was made by Pythagoras of Rhegium."

Pausanias, 6, 6, 1.

"Euthymus won the crown for boxing. His statue is the handiwork of Pythagoras, and is very well worth seeing."

Pausanias, Book 6, 6, 6.

The base of this statue, found at Olympia, has an inscribed signature by "Pythagoras the Samian".

"A man from Stymphalus, by name Dromeus (Runner), proved true to it in the long race, for he won two victories at Olympia, two at Pytho, three at the Isthmus and five at Nemea. He is said to have also conceived the idea of a flesh diet; up to this time athletes had fed on cheese from the basket. The statue of this athlete is by Pythagoras; the one next to it, representing Pythocles, a pentathlete of Elis, was made by Polycleitus."

Pausanias, Book 6, 7, 10.

"By the side of Bycelus stands the statue of a man-at-arms, Mnaseas of Cyrene, surnamed the Libyan; Pythagoras of Rhegium made the statue."

Pausanias, Book 6, 13, 7.

"There is also a bronze statue of Cratisthenes of Cyrene, and on the chariot stand Victory and Cratisthenes himself. It is thus plain that his victory was in the chariot race. The story goes that Cratisthenes was the son of Mnaseas the runner, surnamed the Libyan by the Greeks. His offerings at Olympia are the work of Pythagoras of Rhegium."

Pausanias, Book 6, 18, 1.
 
Pythagoras of Samos

Πυθαγόρας

5th century BC

From Samos

Possibly the same person as Pythagoras of Rhegion.
  "There was also another Pythagoras, a Samian, who was originally a painter, seven of whose nude figures, in the Temple of Fortune of the passing day, and one of an aged man, are very much admired. He is said to have resembled the last-mentioned artist [Pythagoras of Rhegion] so much in his features, that they could not be distinguished."

Pliny, Natural History, Book 34, chapter 19.


"Euthymus won the crown for boxing. His statue is the handiwork of Pythagoras, and is very well worth seeing."

Pausanias, Book 6, 6, 6.

The base of this statue, found at Olympia, has an inscribed signature by "Pythagoras the Samian".
 
Pythokritos of Rhodes

(or Pythokritos of Lindos) Πυθόκριτος Ῥόδιος

Late 3rd - early 2nd century BC

From Lindos, Rhodes

Son of Timocharios (Τιμοχάριος) of Rhodes
  Pythokritos' signature is inscribed on a high relief of a trireme in the rock of the Acropolis of Lindos, showing General Hagesander at the bow.

It is thought that he may have made the marble statue known as the "Winged Victory of Samothrace" (Νίκη της Σαμοθράκης, Niki tis Samothrakis), circa 220-185 BC, for the Sanctuary of the Great Gods, Samothraki, Thrace, Greece. An inscription of a signature of a Rhodian sculptor (name missing), found near the Nike, has letter-forms similar to those of ship at Lindos.

— —ς Ῥόδιος

Inscription IG XII,8 239, dated to the 2nd century AD.

The statue is now in the Louvre, and there are casts in the archaeological museums of Samothraki and Istanbul.

Louvre, Paris. Inv. No. MA 2369.
 
 
R
Rhoikos of Samos

Ῥοῖκος (latin, Rhoecus)

6th century BC

Architect and sculptor from Samos.

He was the son of Philaios or Phileas. His sons Theodoros and Telecles were also sculptors in bronze.
  Rhoikos and Theodoros of Samos were credited with learning the hollow-casting of bronze for large sculptures from the Eqyptians (Pliny, Natural history, Book 35, chapter 43; Pausanias, Description of Greece, Book 9, Chapter 41, section 1).

His name has been found on a fragment of a vase which he dedicated to Aphrodite at Naukratis, a Greek trading post in northern Egypt.

The temple of Apollo at Naukratis, built around 550 BC, has signs of Samian influence. It has been suggested that it was designed by Rhoikos, and that he may have learned Egyptian techniques while working there.

Herodotus (Histories, Book 3, chapter 60) wrote that Rhoikos built the Temple of Hera at Samos, probably the second temple built 580-560 BC, destroyed by fire circa 530 BC.

He made a marble statue of Night for the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus.

His sons Theodoros and Telecles made a statue of Pythian Apollo for the Samians.
 
 
S
Skopas

Σκόπας (Latin, Scopas)

Circa 420-330 BC

He was born on the island of Paros which he left at an early age.

His father was the sculptor Aristandros.
  Pliny mentions a statue of Dionysus and one of Athena by Skopas at Knidos, as well as several other works:

"Scopas rivals these artists [Praxiteles, Kephisodotos and others] in fame: there are by him, a Venus [Aphrodite] and a Pothos [Desire], statues which are venerated at Samothrace with the most august ceremonials.

He was also the sculptor of the Palatine Apollo; a Vesta seated, in the Gardens of Servilius, and represented with two Bends around her, a work that has been highly praised; two similar Bends, to be seen upon the buildings of Asinius Pollio; and some figures of Canephori [figures of virgins, carrying on their heads baskets filled with objects consecrated to Athena, similar to caryatids] in the same place.

But the most highly esteemed of all his works, are those in the Temple erected by Cneius Domitius, in the Flaminian Circus; a figure of Neptune [Poseidon] himself, a Thetis and Achilles, Nereids seated upon dolphins, cetaceous fishes, and sea-horses, Tritons, the train of Phorcus, whales, and numerous other sea-monsters, all by the same hand; an admirable piece of workmanship, even if it had taken a whole life to complete it.

In addition to the works by him already mentioned, and others of the existence of which we are ignorant, there is still to be seen a colossal Mars [Ares] of his, seated, in the Temple erected by Brutus Callaecus, also in the Flaminian Circus; as also, a naked Venus [Aphrodite], of anterior date to that by Praxiteles, and a production that would be quite sufficient to establish the renown of any other place."

Pliny, Natural history, Book 36, chapter 4.

Around 350 BC he worked on the sculptures of the Mausoleum of Halicarnassus with Bryaxis, Leochares, Praxiteles and perhaps Timotheos (Vitruvius, VII, Introduction, 13).

A head of Hygeia in the National Archaeological Museum, Athens, is thought to be an original work of Skopas.

Surviving Roman period copies of his works include: a restored marble head of Meleager and reliefs in the British Museum; the Ludovisi Ares in the Palazzo Altemps, Rome; fragments from the Temple of Athena Alea at Tegea in the National Archaeological Museum, Athens; several copies of Pothos (Desire), including one heavily restored as Apollo Kitharoidos in the Capitoline Museums, Rome.

The "Dresden Maenad", a marble statuette of a dancing maenad, dated to the 2nd half of the 1st century BC, may be a copy of a work by Skopas. Skulpturensammlung, Albertinum, Dresden. Inv. No. Hm 133.
 
Sokrates

Σωκράτης (Latin, Socrates)

Sokrates was identified by Pausanias and Diogenes Laertius with the Athenian philosopher of the same name, son of the sculptor Sophroniscus. Diogenes Laertius also wrote that artists had previously represented the Graces naked, but that Sokrates sculptured them with drapery.
  "No less esteemed, too, are the statues of the Graces, in the Propylaeum at Athens; the workmanship of Socrates the sculptor, a different person from the painter of that name, though identical with him in the opinion of some."

Pliny, Natural history, Book 36, chapter 4.
 
Strongylion

Στρογγυλίων

Late 5th century BC

Athens
  Pausanias describes Strongylion as "an excellent artist of oxen and horses" (Description of Greece, 9, 30, 1).

He made a bronze statue of the wooden horse of Troy for the Athens Acropolis, mentioned by Aristophanes in the Birds (v. 1128); a scholiast names Chairedemos as the dedicator. The inscribed base of the statue, dated to around 414 BC, was found near the sanctuary of Artemis Brauronia on the Acropolis in 1840. The inscription reads:

Χαιρέδημος Εὐαγγέλου ἐκ Κοίλης ἀνέθηκεν Στρογγυλίων ἐποίησεν

He also made a statue of of Artemis Soteira at Megara, a group of three Muses (Pausaias, 9, 30, 1), and an Amazon which was greatly admired by the emperor Nero.
 
 
T
Theodoros of Samos

Θεόδωρος ὁ Σάμιος

6th century BC

From Samos

Son of Rhoikos of Samos, and brother of the sculptor Telecles.
  Along with his father Rhoikos of Samos, Theodoros was credited with learning the hollow-casting of bronze for large sculptures from the Eqyptians.

Theodoros and his brother Telecles made a statue of Pythian Apollo for the Samians.
 
 
Thrasymedes of Paros

Θρασυμήδης ο Παριανός

Early 4th century BC

From Paros, worked at Epidaurus

Son of Arignotus (Pausanias, 2, 27, 2)
  Pausanias wrote that Thrasymedes made the chryselephantine (gold and ivory) statue of Asklepios enthroned for the Temple of Asklepios at the Asklepieion of Epidaurus (Επίδαυρος, Epidavros):

"The image of Asclepius is, in size, half as big as the Olympian Zeus at Athens, and is made of ivory and gold. An inscription tells us that the artist was Thrasymedes, a Parian, son of Arignotus. The god is sitting on a seat grasping a staff; the other hand he is holding above the head of the serpent; there is also a figure of a dog lying by his side. On the seat are wrought in relief the exploits of Argive heroes, that of Bellerophontes against the Chimaera, and Perseus, who has cut off the head of Medusa."

Pausanias, Description of Greece, Book 2, chapter 27, section 2.

Athenagoras, writing in the mid 2nd century AD, claimed that the statue of Asklepios at Epidaurus was a work of Pheidias (Leg. pro Christ. 14, p. 61: ed. Dechair), a statement which appears to have no authority.

Some scholars, attempting to reconcile the testimonies of Pausanias and Athenagoras, thought that Thrasymedes must have been a pupil of Pheidias, and modelled the statue of Asklepios on Pheidias' statue of Zeus at Olympia. However, the temple and the statue are now known to be from the 4th century BC.

See:

Harold N. Fowler, The Statue of Asklepios at Epidauros. The American Journal of Archaeology and of the History of the Fine Arts, Volume 3, No. 1/2 (June 1887), pages 32-37. At jstor.
 
Timarchos

Τίμαρχος

4th - 3rd century BC

Athens
  Statue of Menander (Athenian playwright, circa 342-290 BC) at the Theatre of Dionysos, Athens, mentioned by Pausanias, Description of Greece, Book I, Chapter 21, section 1.

A pedestal, 291/290 BC, discovered in 1862 at the Theatre of Dionysos, bears an inscription with the name "Menandros", below which are the names "Kephisodotos the Younger and Timarchos, sons of Praxiteles".

The pedestal is displayed at the Theatre of Dionysos, with a modern composite cast made from fragments of Roman period copies (in Naples, Venice). More than 70 copies have survived.

With his brother Kephisodotos the Younger he also made a statue of Enyo which stood in the Athens Agora (Pausanias, 1, 8, 4).
 
Timotheos

Τιμόθεος

4th century BC

Born in Epidaurus, died in Epidaurus circa 340 BC
  Timotheos may have worked on the sculptures of the Mausoleum of Halicarnassus, around 350 BC, with Bryaxis, Leochares, Praxiteles and Skopas (Vitruvius, VII, Introduction, 13).

According to Vitruvius, either Leochares or Timotheos made a colossal acrolithic statue of Ares for the Temple of Ares in Halicarnassus (II, 8, 11).

"There is at Rome, by Timotheus, a Diana [Artemis], in the Temple of Apollo in the Palatium, the head of which has been replaced by Avianius Evander."

Pliny, Natural history, Book 36, chapter 4.

He is credited with making a statue of Leda and Zeus as a swan, thought to be the model for Roman copies.
 
Roman copy of the Discobolus statue by Myron at My Favourite Planet

"The Townley Discobolus", marble statue of a discus thrower.

2nd century AD, Roman period. Thought to be a copy of a 5th century BC
bronze statue by Myron. Found in 1791 at Hadrian's Villa, Tivoli, near Rome.
The head is from a different ancient sculpture.

British Museum, London. Acquired from the Townley Collection in 1805.

(Exhibited in the Istanbul Archaeological Museum in 2010.)
 
Ancient Greek
artists
Potters / vase painters

See note 2.
Name / Biographical information   Works / References  
Antimenes Painter

Vase painter of the black-figure style in Athens, active around 530-510 BC.
  He is named after an inscription, Antimenes kalos, on a hydria in the Rijksmuseum, Leyden (Inv. No. PC 63).

An Attic black-figure neck amphora, around 520 BC, attributed to the Antimenes Painter: Side A, Dionysus mask between two large eyes; Side B, a similar mask of a satyr between two large eyes. Antikensammlung Berlin (SMB). Inv. No. F3997.
 
Berlin Painter

Vase painter in Athens,
active around 505-460 BC.

Admired for his refined, elegant style, he is considered as one of the finest vase painters of the early 5th century BC, alongside the Kleophrades Painter. He is credited as the creator of over 300 works.

He began career in the workshop of the Pioneer Group (Euphronios, Euthymides, Smikros, Hypsias, the Dikaios Painter and Phintias), which adopted the red-figure technique developed by earlier painters such as Andokides and Psiax. He was the teacher of the Achilles Painter.
  The Berlin Painter was named by Sir John Beazley after a large lidded red-figure amphora (his name vase) in the Antikensammlung Berlin (Inv. No. F 2160): Side A shows a satyr, Hermes and a fawn; Side B shows a satyr. None of his works are signed.

He began his career working in the Late Archaic style, and made a number of black-figure Panathenaic amphorae. He was one of the vase painters who developed the Classical Attic red-figure style.

An Attic red-figure pelike with a Dionysus followed by a satyr carrying a tripod, 480-470 BC, attributed to the Berlin Painter. National Archaeological Museum, Paestum, Campania, Italy.
 
Christie Painter

Vase painter in Athens,
active around 450-420 BC.
  An Attic red-figure pelike with a Dionysiac scene, 450-425 BC, attributed to the Christie Painter. Paolo Orsi Regional Archaeological Museum, Syracuse. Inv. No. 35188.  
Eucharides Painter

Vase painter in Athens,
active around 500-470 BC.

Perhaps a pupil of the Nikoxenos painter.
  A variety of black-figure and red-figure vases, from large kraters to small cups, have been attributed to the Eucharides painter. His subjects were scenes from mythology and daily life.

A red-figure oichonoe depicting Nike at an altar by the Eucharides Painter. Circa 490-480 BC. Agora Museum, Athens. Inv. No. P 15010.
 
Diphilos

Δίφιλος

The owner of a pottery workshop in Myrina, Mysia (northwestern Anatolia), known from several signed terracotta figurines.

Late 1st century BC - early 1st century AD
  A terracotta figurine of Herakles, found in the Myrina necropolis, signed on the back by Diphilos. Antikensammlung Berlin (SMB).
Inv. No. TC 8154.
 
Exekias

Ἐξηκίας

Potter and painter in Athens,
active 550-525 BC

He taught the Andokides Painter, who with Psiax, is among those credited with the invention of red-figure painting.
  Exekias is considered to be the best black-figure painter. His signature as painter and potter has been found on two vases, and another ten as potter only. Around 30 vases are attributed to him.

See further information and
photos on the Exekias page.
 
Foundry Painter

Vase painter in Athens,
active around 500-470 BC.

He worked in the workshop of the Brygos Painter, and specialized in cups. He also worked with Onesimos and Euphronios.
  The Foundry Painter is named after the "Berlin Foundry Cup" (German, Erzgießerei-Schale), an Attic red-figure kylix (drinking cup), made in Athens 490-480 BC. The outside (Sides A and B) shows workers (sculptors) at a foundry. The tondo on the inside depicts Hephaistos giving the goddess Thetis the armour he has made for her son Achilles during the Trojan War. Antikensammlung SMB, Berlin (Altes Museum). Inv. No. F 2294.  
Gela Painter

Attic black-figure vase painter

Mid 6th century, circa 500-450 BC

Athens
  Most of the vase paintings attributed to the Gela Painter are on lekythoi (small funerary vases), found in Italy (Magna Graecia, or West Greece), particularly Sicily, to where they had been exported from Athens. His real name is unknown; he is named after the ancient Greek colony Gela, on the south coast of Sicily, where many of his works have been discovered.

The images by this prolific but "undistinguished" painter, mainly mythological and genre scenes, are original but executed in a loose, "careless" manner.

A black-figure lekythos by the Gela Painter with a fountain scene. From the Athenian Agora. Circa 500 BC. Agora Museum, Athens.
Inv. No. P 24106.
 
Lydos

Λυδός (the Lydian)

Vase painter in Athens,
active around 560-540 BC.

Leader of the "Lydos Group".

Thought to have been a migrant or son of migrants to Athens from Lydia in Anatolia (Asia Minor).
  Lydos is known from signatures on two black-figure vases: a fragmentary dinos depicting a Gigantomachy, found on the Athenian Acropolis (National Archaeological Museum, Athens. Inv. No. Acr. 607); a large column krater depicting the return of Hephaistos to Olympus (Metropolitan Museum, New York. Inv. No. 31.11.11).

Among several vase paintings attributed to Lydos is a black-figure, double-walled psykter-amphora (wine cooler) showing Dionysus with satyrs and a maenad on one side, and Theseus killing the Minotaur on the other. British Museum. Inv. No. GR 1848,0619.5 (Vase B 148). An Attic black-figure krater from Thermi, Macedonia showing the Kalydonian Boar hunt is also attributed to Lydos (Thessaloniki Archaeological Museum).
 
Micali Painter

Etruscan vase painter, late 6th century BC.
  Etruscan neck amphora ("Round dance") by the Micali Painter, about 525-500 BC.
Altes Museum, Berlin. Inv. No. V.I. 3226.
 
Mykonos Painter

Vase painter in Athens, mid 5th century BC.
  Perseus holding the head of Medusa by the Mykonos Painter, an Attic red-figure calyx-krater, made in Athens about 460-450 BC.
Museo Civico, Castello Ursino, Catania, Sicily.
Inv. No. 4399. From the Biscari Collection.

Beazley Archive Database No. 205773.
 
Nessos Painter

Also referred to as the Nettos Painter.

Vase painter in Athens, active around 620-600 BC.

Originally named the Nettos Painter by Sir John Davidson Beazley (Beazley Archive Database No. 300025), after the "Nessos Amphora".

His style has been described as Late Protoattic or Early black-figure. He is thought to have been the first Athenian to adopt the Corinthian style. He developed his own style, introduced a number of innovations, and was a pioneer of Attic black-figure vase painting.
  Named after the "Nessos Amphora", a large Archaic Attic black-figure amphora, circa 620–610 BC, discovered in Athens in 1890. The painting on the neck depicts Herakles fighting with the Centaur Nessos, with the inscribed names of the figures Ηερακλες (Herakles) and Nετ[τ]ος (Nettos). The body shows two winged Gorgons and the decapitated body of Medusa.
National Archaeological Museum, Athens.
Inv. No. 1002 (CC 657).
 
Orpheus Painter

Vase painter in Athens, active around 450 BC.
  Named after "Orpheus among the Thracians", an Attic red-figure column krater, circa 450 BC, depicting Orpheus playing to a group of Thracian warriors. Discovered in Gela, southern Sicily. Antikensammlung, Staatliche Museen, Berlin. Inv. No. V. I. 3172.  
Polygnotos

Πολύγνωτος (also referred to as Polygnotos I)

Vase painter in Athens,
active around 450-420 BC.

He trained in the workshop of the Niobid Painter, and followed his master in painting mythical, religious and combat scenes. Considered one of the most important painters of the red-figure style of the High Classical period, he specialized in monumental vases, including kraters, hydria, stamnoi and shoulder amphorae, but also painted smaller pelike and Nolan amphorae. his signature has been found on five vases.

He led a workshop known as the Group of Polygnotos, including other painters whose names are known, to which around 700 vases have been attributed. Another two hundred vases by unnamed painters may also be products of the group.

Two other vase painters were named Polygnotos; an Early Classical painter of skyphoi, usually referred to as the Lewis Painter or Polygnotos II; and a "later Mannerist", known as the Nausicaa Painter.
  An Attic red-figure stamnos, attributed to Polygnotos, circa 430-420 BC, depicting Theseus abducting Helen. National Archaeological Museum, Athens. Inv. No. 18063.

An Attic red-figure pelike, circa 450–440 BC, attributed to Polygnotos, with a finely drawn depiction of Perseus beheading the sleeping Medusa. One of the earliest depictions of Medusa as a beautiful young woman rather than a hideous monster. The other side shows King Polypeithes (named in the inscription, but not otherwise known) between two women.

Metropolitan Museum, New York.
Inv. No. 45.11.1.
 
Polyphemos Painter

(or Polyphemus Painter)

A high Proto-Attic vase painter and perhaps potter, active in Athens or on Aegina, mid 7th century BC.

He may have been a pupil of the Mesogeia Painter.
  Named after the "Eleusis Amphora", a large Proto-Attic amphora, dated to around 660 BC, discovered in Eleusis, Greece. The neck depicts Odysseus and his companions blinding the Cyclops Polyphemos, the body shows Perseus and the Gorgons. Eleusis Archaeological Museum. Inv. No. 2630.  
Psiax

Ψίαξ

Late 6th century BC

Athens
  60 surviving vases, dated circa 525-505 BC, have been attributed to Psiax, mostly small vessels, but also large amphorae, hydriai and chalice kraters. Two of the works, both red-figure alabastra (Odessa Archaeologigal Museum and Badisches Landesmuseum, Karlsruhe), have his signature as well as that of the potter Hilinos. Three of the other vases are signed by the potter Andokides in whose workshop red-figure painting is thought to have been invented; some scholars credit Psiax with the invention.

Many of the works are black-figure, but he also used other techniques, such as white-ground, coral red, and Six's technique (adding colours, white or red, on the black ground, and incised details), and was a pioneer of red-figure painting and even "bilingual" vases (decorated in black and red-figure). His main subjects were Dionysiac scenes, myths of Herakles, archers and horses. His painting style has been described as fine, lively, dignified and restrained.

Black-figure Attic plate by Psiax, 540-510 BC, with an armed warrior. Found in the Sanctuary of Zeus at Olympia. Altes Museum, Berlin. Inv. No. F 2099.

Beazley Archive Database No. 320364.

Other works attributed to Psiax are at: the British Museum; National Archaeological Museum of Spain, Madrid; Museo, Brescia; Metropolitan Museum, New York; J. Paul Getty Museum, Malibu; Philadelphia University Museum.
 
Sophilos

Σώφιλος

Potter and vase painter in Athens,
active around 590-570 BC.

The earliest Athenian vase painter whose signature has survived and whose true name is known.
  37 vessels have been attributed to Sophilos, mostly amphorae, dinoi (wine bowls), kraters, as well as three pinakes (plaques). Fragments of two dinoi were signed by him as potter and painter. His work was made for the domestic market and for export to south Italy, the Black Sea, Syria and Egypt (Naukratis).

A large Attic black-figure dinos (wine bowl), circa 580 BC, with a depiction of a procession of deities attending the wedding of Peleus and Thetis, signed by Sophilos. British Museum. Inv. No. 1971.11-1.1.

An Attic black-figure amphora, a late work of Sophilos, circa 580 BC. The painting on the neck shows Hermes standing between two sphinxes. National Archaeological Museum, Athens. Inv. No. 1030.
 
Sosias

Σοσιας

Late 6th – early 5th century BC

Attica
  "Achilles binds Patroklos", tondo on the inside of an Attic red-figure kylix (drinking cup), signed Σοσιας εποιεσεν (Sosias epoiesen, Sosias made [me]). Around 500 BC. The painting on the outside of the cup depicts the Apotheosis of Herakles. Found in Necropolis Camposcala, Vulci, Italy.
Altes Museum, Berlin. Inv. No. F 2278.
 
Syleus Painter

Vase painter in Athens,
active around 490-470 BC.
  Fifty one works have been attributed to the Syleus Painter, named after a red-figure stamnos in Copenhagen depicting Herakles fighting Syleus.

An Attic stamnos, 480-470 BC, showing Dionysus, holding a drinking horn, with two dancing maenads. Pergamon Museum, Berlin. Inv. No. F2182.
 
Syriskos Painter

Vase painter in Athens, active around 480 BC.
  An Attic red-figure calyx-krater, circa 480 BC, from the Athenian Acropolis, attributed to the Syriskos Painter, showing Theseus fighting the Minotaur in the Labyrinth.
National Archaeological Museum, Athens.
Inv. No. Acr. 735.
 
Corinthian column krater by the Detroit Painter at My Favourite Planet

Corinthian column krater attributed to the Detroit Painter, 600-580 BC.

Excavated in 1917 at Tomb II, Banditaccia necropolis, Cerveteri.

National Etruscan Museum, Villa Giulia, Rome.
Peisistratos' guard on an Attic black figure amphora at My Favourite Planet

Attic black figure amphora showing three men walking with clubs,
believed to be a depiction of Peisistratos' guard.

Made in Athens, 530-525 BC. Painting by the Swing Painter.

National Archaeological Museum, Athens. Inv. No. 15111.
Detail of a Panathenaic amphora showing four runners at My Favourite Planet

Detail of a restored Panathenaic amphora showing four runners in a race.
On the right stands a large vessel, perhaps for water.

Made in Athens, late 6th century BC. Painting attributed to the Leagros Group.
Found in the North Temenos Terrace of the Temple of Poseidon at Isthmia,
Corinthia. The amphora was burnt during the fire in the temple.

Side A shows armed Athena striding to the left, and on each side a cockerel on
a tall column. The dedication ΔΑΜΟΝ ΑΝΕΘΕΚΕ is incised below the image panel.

Isthmia Archaeological Museum. Inv. No. IP 1172.
 
Ancient Greek
artists
Painters
Name / Biographical information   Works / References  
Aetion

Αετίων

Painter and sculptor?

Mid 4th - early 3rd century BC
  A sculptor named Aetion is known from references by Pliny the Elder, Theocritus and Callimachus. Aetion as a painter is mentioned by Cicero, Pliny and Lucian, who describes a painting of the Marriage of Alexander the Great and Roxana.

See the Aetion page for further details.
 
Apelles

Ἀπελλῆς

4th century BC

Probably born at Kolophon, Ionia, he was a pupil of Ephorus of Ephesus, and later of Pamphilos at Sikyon.

Most of what is known about Apelles was written by Pliny the Elder (Natural History, Book 35). He is also mentioned by Plutarch (Alexander, 4) and Lucian.
  Pliny tells us that Apelles was a fine draughtsman, particularly skilled in drawing faces.

He travelled to the court of Philip II in Pella, Macedonia, where he painted Philip and the young Alexander, and was appointed as the court painter of Macedon.

None of paintings have survived, but his works are said to have included:

Alexander holding a thunderbolt.

Aphrodite Anadyomene (Aphrodite Rising from the Sea). According to Pliny, he used Campaspe, a former mistress of Alexander, as his model for Aphrodite.

Artemis surrounded by maidens offering a sacrifice, based on a passage from Homer's Odyssey.

The procession of the high priest of Artemis at Ephesus.

Portraits of Antigonus I Monophthalmus on horseback, Clitus the Black and Archelaus I of Macedon.

Sacrifice in Kos, described in the Mimes of Herodas (4.59).

The great allegory of Calumny.

Many of his paintings, including Aphrodite Anadyomene, were later taken to Rome and exhibited publicly.
 
Aristeides of Thebes

(or Aristides) Ἀριστείδης

Also known as Aristeides of Thebes II

Active second half of the 4th century BC

Posssibly the grandson or great grandson of Aristeides of Thebes I. Son of Nikomachos who was his teacher. Contemporary of Apelles.

Renowned for his expressive style, and particularly for a painting of a dying woman with her child at her breast during the siege of a city.
  Aristeides painted a battle between Alexander the Great and Darius III of Persia, one of three known ancient paintings which may have been a model for the "Alexander Mosaic" (125-120 BC) found at Pompeii. The other two contenders are Helena of Egypt and Philoxenus of Eretria.

"Aristides also painted a Battle with the Persians, a picture which contained one hundred figures, for each of which he was paid at the rate of ten minae by Mnason, the tyrant of Elatea."

Pliny the Elder, The Natural History, Book 35, chapter 110.
 
Helena of Egypt

Ἑλένη

4th century BC

Egypt

Pupil of her father Timon.

Helena is known only from one ancient work, the New History by Ptolemy Hephaestion (also known as Ptolemaeus Chennus or Chennus), who lived lived during the reigns of Trajan (98-117 AD) and Hadrian (117-138 AD). The book contains several anecdotes, most quite trivial, about mythical and historical characters. It is thought that the author may have invented many of the events and characters he wrote about.
  Ptolemy Hephaestion wrote that Helena painted the Battle of Issus (333 BC) soon after it happened, and that during the reign of Vespasian (69-79 AD) the picture was placed in the Temple of Peace in Rome (Bekker, Ptolemy Hephaestion, apud Phot. cod. 190, page 149b, 30).

This is one of the three paintings modern scholars think may have been the model for the "Alexander Mosaic".

See also:

Aristides of Thebes

Philoxenus of Eretria.
 
Mikon the Younger of Athens

Μίκων (Latin, Micon)

Painter and sculptor

Mid 5th century BC.

Athens

His daughter was the painter, Timarete.
  Mikon was closely associated with Polygnotus of Thasos, with whom he painted the Stoa poikile ("Painted Portico") in the Athenian Agora with paintings of the Battle of Marathon and other battles. He also painted in the Anakeion in Athens.  
Nikias

Νικίας

4th century BC

Athens
  Nikias coloured many of the marble statues of Praxiteles.

He has been credited with a painting of Io, Hermes and Argos Panoptes which influenced several other depictions of the subject.
 
Philoxenus of Eretria

Φιλόξενος

Late 4th century BC

From Eretria, Euboea

A pupil of Nikomachos (Pliny, 35, 110)
  "Philoxenus of Eretria, who painted for King Cassander a picture representing one of the battles between Alexander and Darius, a work which may bear comparison with any."

Pliny the Elder, The Natural History, Book 35, chapter 110.

The painting (probably after 315 BC) is is one of three modern scholars think may have been the model for the "Alexander Mosaic".

See also:
Aristides of Thebes and Helena of Egypt.
 
Sokrates

Σωκράτης (Latin, Socrates)
     
Zeuxis

Ζεῦξις (abbreviation of Ζεύξιππος, Zeuxippos)

5th century BC; born in 464 BC

He was from Heraklea (Ἡράκλεια), although which of the many cities with this name is unknown. Suggestions that he was from Heraclea Lucania in southeast Italy seem unlikely, as this city was only founded in 432 BC.
  One of the most famous ancient Greek painters who also made small ceramic figures (figlina opera).

He was commissioned by Archelaus I of Macedon (ruled 413-399 BC) to decorate the royal palace at the new Macedonian capital Pella.
 
 
Ancient Greek
artists
Mosaicists
Name / Biographical information   Works / References  
Amiteion

(or Amiteios)

3rd century BC
  A late third century AD mosaic, discovered in a large Roman villa at Suweydie, near Baalbek, Lebanon, signed "ΑΜΙΤΕΙΩΝ ΕΠΟΙΕΙ" (Amiteion epoiei, Amiteion created it), shows the muse Calliope surrounded by subtitled portait medallions of the Athenian philosopher Socrates and the Seven Sages: Solon of Athens ("nothing in exess"), Thales of Miletus ("a guarantor ruins himself"), Bias of Priene ("most people are bad"), Cleobulus of Lindos ("moderation is best"), Periander of Corinth ("practice makes perfect"), Pittacus of Mytilene ("know your opportunity") and Chilon of Sparta ("know thyself").

See: Peter Green, A concise history of ancient Greece, illustration 127, page 101. Thames and Hudson, London, 1973.
 
Dioskourides of Samos

Διοσκουρίδης Σάμιος (Latin, Dioscurides)

Thought to be working in the late 2nd to early 1st century BC.
  Two mosaics found in the "Villa of Cicero", Pompeii, are signed "ΔΙΟΣΚΟΥΡΙΔΗΣ ΣΑΜΙΟΣ ΕΠΟΙΗΣΕ" (Dioskourides Samios epoese, Dioskourides of Samos created [this]).

For further information and photos, see the Dioskourides of Samos page of the People section.
 
Gnoseis

Γνῶσεις

Worked in Pella, 4th century BC
  The Stag Hunt mosaic floor in the House of the Abduction of Helen, Pella, Greece, signed "ΓΝΩΣΕΙΣ ΕΠΟΗΣΕΝ" (Gnoseis epoesen, Gnoseis created this). The earliest known signature on a mosaic.  
Hephaistion

Ἡφαιστίων

Worked in Pergamon, 2nd century BC
  Hellenistic floor mosaic, mid 2nd century BC, discovered in Palace V, Pergamon, Turkey, signed "ΗΦΑΙΣΤΙΩΝ ΕΠΟΙΕΙ" (Hephaistion epoiei, Hephaistion created it).

Pergamon Museum, Berlin.
 
Sosos

Σῶσος (Latin, Sosus)

Worked in Pergamon, 2nd century BC
  No original work of Sosos has yet been identified, but Roman imitations of his "asarotos oikos" (unswept house; literally, The house that has no sweeping), usually known as "the unswept room", still exist.

He is the only mosaic artist named by an ancient author. Pliny wrote:

"Pavements are an invention of the Greeks, who also practised the art of painting them, till they were superseded by mosaics. In this last branch of art, the highest excellence has been attained by Sosus, who laid, at Pergamus, the mosaic pavement known as the 'asarotos oikos': from the fact that he there represented, in small squares of different colours, the remnants of a banquet lying upon the pavement, and other things which are usually swept away with the broom, they having all the appearance of being left there by accident. There is a dove also, greatly admired, in the act of drinking, and throwing the shadow of its head upon the water; while other birds are to be seen sunning and pluming themselves, on the margin of a drinking-bowl."

Pliny the Elder, The Natural History, Book 36, chapter 60, section 25.
 
Zosimos

Ζώσιμος

Working around 200 AD

Perhaps Zosimos of Samosata
  An inscribed mosaic panel signed by Zosimos (Ζώσιμος), discovered in 2000 at ancient Zeugma on the Euphrates (Ζεῦγμα, near Gaziantep, southern Turkey), and dated to around 200 AD, shows a scene from Menander's play Synaristosai. He may have been the Zosimos of Samosata whose signature is on a mosaic of Aphrodite on a shell and two Tritons, also found at Zeugma. See the note on the Dioskourides of Samos page.  
 
Ancient Greek
artists
Architects
Name / Biographical information   Works / References  
Chersiphron

Χερσίφρων (Chersiphron of Gnosus; Latin, Chersiphrone Gnosio)

From Knossos, Crete

Working 6th century BC
  One of the architects of the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus, with his son Metagenes (Μεταγένης). Building began around 550 BC, after the destruction of the original temple in the 7th century BC. Chersiphron's temple was burnt down by Herostratus in July 356, and was replaced by yet another.

"For in four places only are the temples embellished with work in marble, and from that circumstance the places are very celebrated, and their excellence and admirable contrivance is pleasing to the gods themselves. The first is the temple of Diana [Artemis] at Ephesus, of the Ionic order, built by Chersiphron of Gnosus, and his son Metagenes, afterwards completed by Demetrius, a priest of Diana, and Paeonius the Ephesian.

Vitruvius, The ten books on architecture,
Book 7, Introduction, section 16
.

Chersiphron is also named as the principle architect of the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus by Pliny the Elder (Natural History, Book 7, chapter 38, and Book 36, chapter 21), and Strabo (Geography, Book 14, chapter 1).
 
Iktinos

Ικτίνος (Latin, Ictinus)

Architect and sculptor

Mid 5th century BC

Athens
  The architect of the Temple of Apollo at Bassae and the Temple of Demeter and Persephone at Eleusis (Vitruvius, Book 7, Introduction, section 16).

With Kallikrates he designed the Parthenon in Athens.

See Iktinos under sculptors for further information.
 
Paionios of Ephesus

Παιώνιος (Paionios; Latin, Paeonius Ephesius)

Second half of the 4th century BC
  According to Vitruvius, Paionios and Demetrius completed the Temple of Artemis in Ephesus begun by Chersiphron of Knossos and Metagenes, and the Temple of Apollo at Didyma (near Miletus) with Daphnis of Miletus.

"For in four places only are the temples embellished with work in marble, and from that circumstance the places are very celebrated, and their excellence and admirable contrivance is pleasing to the gods themselves. The first is the temple of Diana [Artemis] at Ephesus, of the Ionic order, built by Chersiphron of Gnosus, and his son Metagenes, afterwards completed by Demetrius, a priest of Diana, and Paeonius the Ephesian.

The second is the temple of Apollo at Miletus, also of the Ionic order, built by the above-named Paeonius, and Daphnis, the Milesian."

Vitruvius, The ten books on architecture,
Book 7, Introduction, section 16
. English translation at Bill Thayer's LacusCurtius website, University of Chicago.

The most widely available translation by Morris Hicky Morgan (Harvard University Press, 1914) has "Paeonius the Milesian", although the Latin text states "Paeonius Ephesius" (Vitruvius Pollio, On architecture, edited by F. Krohn. Lipsiae. B.G. Teubner, 1912. At Perseus Digital Library).
 
Pytheos

Πυθέος (Pythius of Priene)

4th century BC
  Pytheos designed the Mausoleum of Halicarnassus, with Satyros, and the Temple of Athena in Priene, and wrote about architecture.

"... This led one of the ancient architects, Pytheos, the celebrated builder of the temple of Minerva [Athena] at Priene, to say in his commentaries that an architect ought to be able to accomplish much more in all the arts and sciences than the men who, by their own particular kinds of work and the practice of it, have brought each a single subject to the highest perfection."

Vitruvius, The ten books on architecture,
Book 1, chapter 1, section 12
.

The Temple of Athena Polias in Priene was partly financed by Alexander the Great, attested by an inscription on a marble wall block from the temple's ante, now in the British Museum.
 
Greek gold foil relief of a round dance, 7th century BC at My Favourite Planet

Greek gold foil relief of a round dance. 7th century BC.

Altes Museum, Berlin.
 
Ancient Greek
artists
Notes, references and links
As ever, comments, criticisms, suggestions
and contributions to this project are welcome.

Please get in contact.

1. Ancient Greek artists - a work in progress

Although there is an abundance of ancient Greek pottery in world museums and collections, very few original sculptures, paintings or mosaics by ancient Greek artists have survived, and most works are known from Roman period copies. The artists seldom signed their works, and many signatures on statues and bases are questionable or were later forgeries.

Several ancient writers (Pausanias, Plutarch, Pliny the Elder, etc.) mention artworks and name artists who were presumably well-known to the educated readers of their time, but many remain a puzzle to modern scholars. Since the Renasissance archaeologists and historians have attempted to identify the makers and origins of extant works of art, often causing a great deal of debate and controversy in the academic world.

The arrangements of book, chapter and section of the works of ancient authors varies in different modern published editions and online versions. We shall attempt, where possible, to refer to a single source for each author and provide links to the respective passages online.

We will also provide links to information and images of artists and works on this and other websites, as well as bibliographic details for modern publications.

We also hope (eventually) to include information about architects and gem engravers.

2. Ancient Greek pottery

Because of the large numbers of surviving ancient Greek "vases", discovered and collected since at least the 15th century across an enormous geographical area (from across Europe, all around the Mediterranean and into Central Asia), the subject has been studied and written about by many scholars. It is therefore not surprising that there are many theories and a lot of specialized terminology and jargon, which we are unable to deal with in detail here.

Pottery has been described as "indestructable" - at least the baked clay substance - but most often only shards or smashed ancient ceramic objects have been found, and where possible fragments have been carefully restored. Still, it is surprising how many have remained intact, usually those buried as grave goods or as votive offerings to deities, or even deliberately hidden with other objects (coins, valuables, statues, etc) in stashes at times of crisis by owners who believed they may return to recover their possessions. Many pots have astoundingly retained their lustre, colours and painted details over thousands of years. In Sicilian archaeological museums such as Catania, Syracuse, Gela and Argigento, for example, the vast majority of exhibits are vases, many in excellent condition.

Pottery has been made and traded since Neolithic times, for basic daily use, special communal and religious functions, as jewellery and decoration, and for pleasure. From the basic shapes of early ceramics, makers experimented to produce particular forms for practical and aesthetic purposes. Apart from vessels for storage, eating and drinking, there were also ceramic plaques, tiles, bricks, beads, toys, statues, figurines and reliefs (see, for example, a painted Corinthian ceramic pinax, 630-610 BC, and a Campana plate, 1st century AD). Decoration also evolved from simple indents and grooves made with fingers and thumbs and incisions scratched with sticks, to exquisitely drawn, painted and glazed works of art.

However, since the field of ceramic objects in general is so vast, many scholars of ancient Greek pottery confine themselves to the "vases", which include vessels such as amphorae and kraters (there are over 24 main basic shapes with numerous variations). The continuity of development in form and decoration of Greek pottery can now be charted, particularly from the Archaic period (8th - 5th centuries BC) onwards, and especially in the case "Attic" pottery from Athens, much of which was made for export around the Mediterranean.

A small number of vases were signed by the potter, the painter or both, so that those responsible for unsigned pots can sometimes be identified by examining style, form, materials and finish in comparison to signed vessels. In the case where a painter's name is unknown, a name is often given by scholars based on personal idiosyncrasies evident in one or more pieces, the potter for whom they worked (e.g. Andokides Painter, who worked for Andokides the potter), the current location of an exemplary work (in a collection or museum, for example the Berlin Painter) or a particular subject (e.g. Orpheus Painter). This system was devised by the Oxford-based scholar Sir John Davidson Beazley (1885–1970), who identified around 500 potters, vase painters, groups, and workshops. The key pottery vessel from which the name of the painter has been identified is known as the "name vase".

A name given by scholars to an unidentified artist in any medium is often referred to as the "Notname" (provisional name), from the German word Not, meaning emergency.
 
An Apulian ceramic flask in the form of a dolphin leaping over the waves at My Favourite Planet

A ceramic flask in the form of a dolphin leaping over the waves.

Made in Apulia (Italy) around 350-330 BC.

British Museum. Inv. No. GR 1856.12-26.64 (Vase G 165).
Bequeathed by Sir William Temple.
 
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