|My Favourite Planet > English > Middle East > |
||Facts and figures for Turkey
|Note: information about tourist visas for Turkey|
can be found on page 4: practical info.
||Republic of Turkey|
||Ankara (pop. 4.5 million *)|
||Istanbul (pop. 12.8 million *)|
See a list of Turkey's 23 largest cities below.
||Turkey is a transcontinental Eurasian country.|
Asian Turkey (Anatolia) makes up 97% of the country, separated from European Turkey by the Bosphorus Strait, the Sea of Marmara, and the Dardanelles (which together form a marine link between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean).
European Turkey (Eastern Thrace or Rumelia on the Balkan peninsula) makes up 3% of the country.
||Eastern European Time (EET)|
Daylight Saving Schedule:
Summer (from last Sunday in March)
GMT/UTC +3 hours
Winter (from last Sunday in October)
GMT/UTC +2 hours
||Turkish Lira (abbreviation: TRY, TYL or TL)|
||220V / 50Hz (European plug)|
||south and west coass, Mediterranean climate, temperate with hot, dry summers and mild, wet winters.|
Elsewhere (Black Sea coast and the interior) harsher.
||See page 4: practical info.|
||783,562 square kilometres|
(302,535 sq miles)
water: 1.3 %
||total 7,200 km|
north: Black Sea (Karadeniz)
west-south: Aegean (Egedenizi) and Mediterranean (Akdeniz)
||Land boundaries: total 2,648 km|
west: Greece 206 km, Bulgaria 240 km
east: Georgia 252 km, Armenia 268 km, Azerbaijan 9 km, Iran 499 km
south: Syria 822 km, Iraq 352 km
||high central plateau (Anatolia); narrow coastal plains; several mountain ranges|
lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 metres
highest point: Mount Ararat 5,166 metres
||71,517,100 (2008 census)|
||Turkish 80%, Kurdish 20% (estimated);|
other ethnic groups include: Abkhazians, Adjarians, Albanians, Arabs, Armenians, Assyrians, Bosniaks, Circassians, Greeks, Hamshenis, Jews, Laz, Pomaks, Roma, Zazas
||majority/official language Turkish;|
Armenian, Kurdish spoken, particularly in eastern Turkey;
Various other ethnic languages and dialects spoken in various locations
||Turkey is officially a secular republic, with no state religion.|
The population is predominantly Muslim (99%), the majority are Sunni (75%) and a large minority are Alevi (15-25%).
Other religious groups include: Christians (mostly Greek Orthodox and Armenian Apostolic) and Jews (96% Sephardi and 4% Ashkenazi)
||Republic Day, 29 October (1923)
|7 regions: Aegean (Ege Bölgesi), Black Sea (Karadeniz Bölgesi), Central Anatolia (Iç Anadolu Bölgesi), Eastern Anatolia (Doğu Anadolu Bölgesi), Marmara, Mediterranean (Akdeniz Bölgesi), Southeastern Anatolia (Güneydoğu Anadolu Bölgesi)
81 administrative provinces (iller, singular ili), each divided into districts (total of 923 districts); each province also has 7 non-administrative regions for census purposes.
81 provinces: Adana, Adiyaman, Afyonkarahisar, Agri, Aksaray, Amasya, Ankara, Antalya, Ardahan, Artvin, Aydin, Balikesir, Bartin, Batman, Bayburt, Bilecik, Bingol, Bitlis, Bolu, Burdur, Bursa, Canakkale, Cankiri, Corum, Denizli, Diyarbakir, Duzce, Edirne, Elazig, Erzincan, Erzurum, Eskisehir, Gaziantep, Giresun, Gumushane, Hakkari, Hatay, Icel (Mersin), Igdir, Isparta, Istanbul, Izmir (Smyrna), Kahramanmaras, Karabuk, Karaman, Kars, Kastamonu, Kayseri, Kilis, Kirikkale, Kirklareli, Kirsehir, Kocaeli, Konya, Kutahya, Malatya, Manisa, Mardin, Mugla, Mus, Nevsehir, Nigde, Ordu, Osmaniye, Rize, Sakarya, Samsun, Sanliurfa, Siirt, Sinop, Sirnak, Sivas, Tekirdag, Tokat, Trabzon (Trebizond), Tunceli, Usak, Van, Yalova, Yozgat, Zonguldak
||7 November 1982; amended 1987, 1995, 2001 and 2007; amendment passed by referendum concerning presidential elections on 21 October 2007|
||Recep Tayyip Erdoğan (AKP party)|
||Ahmet Davutoğlu (AKP party)|
||550 members, elected every four years (party-list proportional representation system)
||Turkey's 23 largest cities
||population (estimated * see below)|
||Fourth largest Turkish city: the ancient Antioch in Cilicia (or Antioch on the Saurus); inland commercial centre for agriculture, gateway to fertile Çukurova (Cilician) plain.
||Turkey's capital and second largest city.|
||Fortified port and provincial capital near the Syrian border; ancient Antioch.|
||The fastest growing city, centre of the Mediterranean region's beach resort area known as "theTurkish Riviera". Ancient Attalia, founded by King Attalus II of Pergamon in the 2nd century BC.|
||Inland agricultural market town near the Aegean Sea; ancient Tralles (Roman name, it also had various other names in antiquity); Aydin province includes the popular seaside town of Kusadasi.|
||Inland agricultural market town in the Marmaris (ancient Aeolia) region of the north Aegean, large olive production, beautiful rural landscape|
||First capital of the Ottoman Empire, near the Sea of Marmaris, on the foothills of Mount Uludag; ancient Prussa; a national park, thermal baths, and winter sports resort; once a western terminus of the Silk Road, and later the largest centre for Ottoman Turkey's own domestic silk production and trade.|
||Second largest city in Southeastern Anatolia (after Gaziantep), on the River Tigress; large Kurdish population ("unofficial capital of Kurdistan"); ancient Amida.|
||Main city of eastern Thrace, the second capital of the Ottoman Empire; formerly Adrianople, founded by Roman Emperor Hadrian in 125 AD.|
||(informally Antep) Largest city in Southeastern Anatolia; one of the oldest continally inhabited cities in the world; ancient Doliche (Roman).|
||Turkey's largest city and the fifth largest in the world. Former capital of the Ottoman and Byzantine (Eastern Roman) Empires. The only city in the world to straddle two continents. Formerly known as Byzantium, Constantinople.|
||Turkey's third largest city and main port on the Aegean Sea; ancient Smyrna. Capital of Izmir province which includes Bergama (Pergamon) and Selçuk (ancient Ephesus).|
||Administrative centre, university town and industrial port on the Sea of Marmaris; ancient Nicomedia.|
||Inland administrative centre, and market town in the Mediterranean region, at the foot of Taurus mountains; produces textiles and ice cream; called Maraş until 1973; ancient Hittite city, known by Romans as Germanicia Caesarea.|
||Principal city of Central Anatolia; important trade, industrial and cultural centre; ancient Caesarea Mazaca.|
||On the Central Anatolian plain; ancient Iconium; former captal of Seljuk Empire; home to and site of the tomb of Rumi, mystic and poet, founder of the Dervish order; place of Dervish pilgrimage; splendid Islamic architecture.|
||Inland market town northeast of Izmir in the Aegean Region; ancient Magnesia.|
||Modern, busy port city on the Mediterranean coast in south Anatolia; ancient Zephyrium (also Hadrianopolis); second largest skyscraper in Turkey; huge hotels, an opera house, expensive real estate; plans to build a nuclear power plant.|
||Port on the Black Sea; ancient Amisos |
||Inland market town in South-eastern Anatolia, near the Syrian border; locally known as Urfa; many ancient names including Ur and Edessa; mixed population, mainly Kurdish; fascinating old quarter and ancient bazaar; home of Nabi, 17th century poet.|
||Black Sea port on the northern-most peninsula of Anatolia; the ancient fortress Sinope.|
||The wonderful Sumela Monastery is just outside the city and it is a great gateway to exploring northeastern Turkey.|
||On Lake Van in Eastern Anatolia, an ancient Armenian city; today the majority of the population are Kurds. Long story, short description. If you know more, please get in contact.
* Population estimates vary enormously from source to source. Though it is true Turkey's population is growing steadily, and more people are moving into cities from the countryside, often numbers quoted for cities are actually for their respective regions or even provinces rather than actual urban populations. More than one city claims to be the fourth largest in Turkey based on such statistics. Another factor is that as cities grow they absorb surrounding towns and villages - a continuous process and a headache for the people who produce statistics and journalists. Spare little sympathy for such people, that is what they are paid for. ;-)
|Map, photos and articles: © David John
Additional photos: © Konstanze Gundudis
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