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Temple of Hadrian. Frieze on the left of porch depicting the mythical founding of Ephesus by Androklos.
|The identifications of the figures can not be certain, but are said to include: Roma (far left), Apollo (4th), Androklos with his dog (6th), a figure riding what may be the wild boar mentioned in the foundation myth (although it looks more like a small elephant), and Athena (far right).|
This frieze is a copy of the original now in the
Ephesus Archeological Museum, Selçuk.
Androkles frieze ("Block C"), 2nd century AD. Inv. No. 713-716.
|For further information about the history of|
the Temple of Hadrian, see gallery page 19.
|According to the local legend, Ephesus was founded by Androklos (Ἄνδροκλος) , son of Kodros (Κόδρος), king of Athens. Forced to flee Greece (perhaps because of Dorian invasions), Androklos sailed to Anatolia with his followers. On their arrival they drove out the indigenous Carians and Leleges (probably Lydians).
Androklos is mentioned as the ktistes (κτίστης, founder) of Ephesus on several Hellenistic and Roman period inscriptions found in the city. 
An oracle of Apollo had predicted that a fish and a boar would show where to build their new city. Following their arrival, as some fishermen were cooking their lunch near a spring, a burning fish popped out of the fire and ignited bushes in which there was a wild boar. The frightened boar fled and was chased and killed by the fishermen. This was seen as the fulfillment of the prophecy, and the new settlement was established and a temple of Athena built at the place where the boar had been killed, a hill known as Tracheia Mountain (Τραχεῖα, Rough).
The only surviving ancient literary source for this story is Athenaeus of Naucratis, who claims to be citing a certain Creophylus (Κρεώφυλος), about whom nothing else is known. 
"Creophylus, in Chronicles of the Ephesians, says that the founders of Ephesus, after suffering many hardships because of the difficulties of the region, finally sent to the oracle of the god and asked where they should place their city. And he declared to them that they should build a city 'whereso'er' a fish shall show them and a wild boar shall lead the way.
It is said, accordingly, that some fishermen were eating their noonday meal in the place where are the spring today called Oily [Hypelaios] and the sacred lake. One of the fish popped out with a live coal and fell into some straw, and a thicket in which a wild boar happened to be was set on fire by the fish. The boar, frightened by the fire, ran up a great distance on the mountain which is called Trecheia (Rough), and when brought down by a javelin, fell where today stands the temple of Athena.
So the Ephesians crossed over from the island after living there twenty years, and for the second time settled Trecheia and the regions on the slopes of Coressus; they also built a temple of Artemis overlooking the market-place, and a temple of the Pythian Apollo at the harbour."
Athenaeus of Naucratis, The Learned Banqueters, Book 8, chapter 62 
The oracle mentioned is usually taken to be that of Apollo at Delphi, which is known to have been consulted by Greek cities sending out colonies, although it is usually reported that colonists received the god's enigmatic advice before setting off. There was also an oracle of Apollo much nearer at Didyma, belonging to the Ionian city of Miletus, which was colonized by Greeks before Ephesus. 
The "Hypelaios"  appears to have been a spring among the olive trees, which may have later been contained by a fountain, the Hypelaion (Ὑπέλαιον; Latin, Hypelaeum) mentioned by Strabo (see below). The "sacred lake" (ἱερὸς λιμὴν, ieros limin) is usually translated as sacred harbour, thought to be the old harbour of Ephesus which was silted up by the Roman period.
The folksy tale of ordinary fishermen cooking their lunch and causing the fulfillment of a prophecy may have been the root of the foundation myths of the city. It is notable that Androklos is not mentioned here, although it appears that he was later associated with the wild boar episode, as can be seen from the frieze in the Temple of Hadrian, other sculptures and coins from the Roman period (see below).
|In the 5th century BC Herodotus, when discussing Ionia and the Ionians, briefly, indirectly and scathingly referred to the Ephesians' claim that their founder was Androklos, the son of Kodros of Athens. He also claimed that the Ionians were not pure Ionian Greeks, since many had come from other places, and the first colonists had brought no women with them but married the daughters, wives and mothers of the male natives they had dispossessed and killed:
"... for it would be foolishness to say that these are more truly Ionian or better born than the other Ionians; since not the least part of them are Abantes from Euboea, who are not Ionians even in name, and there are mingled with them Minyans of Orchomenus, Cadmeans, Dryopians, Phocian renegades from their nation, Molossians, Pelasgian Arcadians, Dorians of Epidaurus, and many other tribes,
And as for those who came from the very town-hall of Athens and think they are the best born of the Ionians, these did not bring wives with them to their settlements, but married Carian women whose parents they had put to death.
For this slaughter, these women made a custom and bound themselves by oath (and enjoined it on their daughters) that no one would sit at table with her husband or call him by his name, because the men had married them after slaying their fathers and husbands and sons. This happened at Miletus.
And as kings, some of them chose Lycian descendants of Glaucus son of Hippolochus, and some Caucones of Pylus, descendants of Codrus son of Melanthus, and some both."
Herodotus, Histories, Book 1, chapters 146-147. 
It should be pointed out that Herodotus was himself a Carian, and perhaps no great friend of Ionian supremacy.
The Greek geographer Strabo, writing in the early 1st century AD, used the 5th century mythographer Pherecydes of Leros  as his source for the early history of Ephesus:
"According to Pherecydes, Miletus, Myus, Mycale, and Ephesus, on this coast, were formerly occupied by Carians; the part of the coast next in order, as far as Phocaea, and Chios, and Samos, of which Ancaeus was king, were occupied by Leleges, but both nations were expelled by the Ionians, and took refuge in the remaining parts of Caria."
"Pherecydes says that the leader of the Ionian, which was posterior to the Aeolian migration, was Androclus, a legitimate son of Codrus king of the Athenians, and that he was the founder of Ephesus, hence it was that it became the seat of the royal palace of the Ionian princes. Even at present the descendants of that race are called kings, and receive certain honours, as the chief seat at the public games, a purple robe as a symbol of royal descent, a staff instead of a sceptre, and the superintendence of the sacrifices in honour of the Eleusinian Ceres [Demeter]."
Strabo, Geography, Book 14, chapter 1, section 3 .
"The city of Ephesus was inhabited both by Carians and Leleges. After Androclus had expelled the greatest part of the inhabitants, he settled his companions about the Athenaeum, and the Hypelaeum, and in the mountainous tract at the foot of the Coressus. It was thus inhabited till the time of Croesus. Afterwards, the inhabitants descended from the mountainous district, and settled about the present temple, and continued there to the time of Alexander."
Strabo, Geography, Book 14, chapter 1, section 21 .
The second century AD travel writer Pausanias (who was from Lydia) had more to say about the arrival of the Ionian Greeks and their conquest of Miletus and Ephesus. He also related that Androklos took Samos for a while, perhaps as long as 10 years. Androklos was even depicted on Roman coins of Samos during the 3rd century; perhaps due to a revival of interest in the hero sparked by the works of authors such as Pausanias. The founder hero was killed while fighting with the people of Priene against the Carians and was buried in Ephesus, on the road between Olympieion and the Magnesian gate.  Pausanias' usual mix of myth, legend and heresay is apparent when he discusses the history of the sanctuary of Artemis.
"... Medon and Neileus, the oldest of the sons of Codrus, quarrelled about the rule [of Athens], and Neileus refused to allow Medon to rule over him, because he was lame in one foot. The disputants agreed to refer the matter to the Delphic oracle, and the Pythian priestess gave the kingdom of Athens to Medon. So Neileus and the rest of the sons of Codrus set out to found a colony, taking with them any Athenian who wished to go with them, but the greatest number of their company was composed of Ionians."
Pausanias, Description of Greece, Book 7, chapter 2, section 1. 
The Ionians had taken refuge in Athens after being driven out of the Peloponnese by the Dorian invasions. Neileus, the brother of Androklos, was the legendary founder of Ionian Miletus.
"When the Ionians had overcome the ancient Milesians they killed every male, except those who escaped at the capture of the city, but the wives of the Milesians and their daughters they married.
The grave of Neileus is on the left of the road, not far from the gate, as you go to Didymi. The sanctuary of Apollo at Didymi, and his oracle, are earlier than the immigration of the Ionians, while the cult of Ephesian Artemis is far more ancient still than their coming.
Pindar, however, it seems to me, did not learn everything about the goddess, for he says that this sanctuary was founded by the Amazons during their campaign against Athens and Theseus. It is a fact that the women from the Thermodon, as they knew the sanctuary from of old, sacrificed to the Ephesian goddess both on this occasion and when they had fled from Heracles; some of them earlier still, when they had fled from Dionysus, having come to the sanctuary as suppliants. However, it was not by the Amazons that the sanctuary was founded, but by Coresus, an aboriginal, and Ephesus, who is thought to have been a son of the river Cayster, and from Ephesus the city received its name.
The inhabitants of the land were partly Leleges, a branch of the Carians, but the greater number were Lydians. In addition there were others who dwelt around the sanctuary for the sake of its protection, and these included some women of the race of the Amazons.
But Androclus the son of Codrus (for he it was who was appointed king of the Ionians who sailed against Ephesus) expelled from the land the Leleges and Lydians who occupied the upper city. Those, however, who dwelt around the sanctuary had nothing to fear; they exchanged oaths of friendship with the Ionians and escaped warfare. Androclus also took Samos from the Samians, and for a time the Ephesians held Samos and the adjacent islands.
But after that the Samians had returned to their own land, Androclus helped the people of Priene against the Carians. The Greek army was victorious, but Androclus was killed in the battle. The Ephesians carried off his body and buried it in their own land, at the spot where his tomb is pointed out at the present day, on the road leading from the sanctuary past the Olympieum to the Magnesian gate. On the tomb is a statue of an armed man."
Pausanias, Description of Greece, Book 7, chapter 2, sections 6-9. 
A fragmentary marble statue of Antinous as Androkles,
the legendary or mythical Athenian founder of Ephesus.
Found in 1927 in the Vedius Gymnasium, Ephesus.
Roman period, 138-161 AD.
Part of a statue group, perhaps depicting the legend
of Androklos with his dog hunting a wild boar.
Izmir Archaeological Museum. Inv. No. 45.
|Antinous (Ἀντίνοος, Antinoos, circa 111-130 AD) from Bythinia, northwestern Anatolia (Asia Minor), was the young lover (eromenos) of Emperor Hadrian. He is thought to have accompanied Hadrian on the emperor's second visit to Ephesus with around 129-130 AD.
After he drowned in the Nile, Hadrian deified him and erected many busts and statues of him at sanctuaries for his cult throughout the Roman Empire. He was often depicted in the guise of a local deity or hero such as Dionysus, Osiris, Herakles or Bellerophon.
Ephesian coins from the reigns of Hadrian (117-138 AD) to Gallienus (253-268 AD) show Androklos hunting a wild boar, a reference to the legend related by Athenaeus (see above). One of the earliest, from Hadrian's reign, shows a bust of Antinous with the inscription "Heros Antinoos" on the obverse side. The reverse shows a youthful Androklos standing in a heroic pose, naked apart from a chlamys (short cloak, as in the statue of Antinous above), in front of an olive tree, and the inscription "Ephesion Androklos". He holds a spear in his left hand and carries a dead boar in his right hand.
Coins from the mid 2nd to 3rd century show the head of the current emperor on the obverse side, and on the reverse a similar representation of Androklos, sometimes with a hunting dog. Others show Androklos hunting a boar either with a spear or on horseback, or standing next to the hero Koressos with both holding the dead boar.
Androkles is also shown on coins of other cities during the 2nd and 3rd centuries, standing to the right of the founder of that city (e.g. Alexander the Great for Alexandria and the hero Kyzikos for Kyzikos), either shaking hands or holding statuettes of their respective local deities (e.g the hero Pergamos with a statuette of Asklepios and Androklos with Artemis Ephesia).
|Notes, references and links
Androklos (Ἄνδροκλος), brave and glorious. From andros (ἀνδρὸς), of a man, brave; and kleos (κλέος), glory.
Ktistes (κτίστης), founder. From ktízein (κτίζειν), to make habitable, to settle, or to found, to set up. The word was used for the founders of cities, including legendary or mythological founders (e.g. Byzas for Byzantium), gods (especially Apollo) and divine heroes (e.g. Herakles). From the Hellenistic period it was also used for founders of games and other public institutions.
In Archaic and Classical Greece an oikistes (οἰκιστής) was a person chosen by the mother city (μητρόπολις, metropolis) to establish a new colony (ἀποικία, apoikia).
Creophylus (Κρεώφυλος, Kreophylos) is also referred as Kreophylos of Ephesus (Κρεώφυλος ο Εφέσιος) because of Athenaeus' mention of his Chronicles of the Ephesians (or Ephesian Annals; Ἐφεσίων ὧροι, Ephesion oroi), and it has even been speculated that he wrote in the Ionian dialect and may have lived in the 4th century BC. However, there is no evidence for this, and there is no mention of a historian named Creophylus by any other ancient author.
Kreophylos is also the name of a legendary Greek poet, usually referred to as Kreophylos of Samos (Κρεώφυλος ὁ Σάμιος), although he may have been from Chios. He may have lived in the 7th or 6th century BC and have been a contemporary of Homer. No works by him have survived, and evidence of his existence is just as elusive as that for Kreophylos of Ephesus. It is just as likely that Kreophylos of Samos wrote an epic poem on the legends and history of Ephesus.
4. Athenaeus on the foundation of Ephesus
Athenaeus of Naucratis (Greek, Ἀθήναιος Nαυκρατίτης or Nαυκράτιος, Athenaios Naukratites; Latin, Athenaeus Naucratita) was a Greek rhetorician and grammarian of the late 2nd to early 3rd century AD from Naucratis, the Ptolemaic capital of Egypt. His only surviving work is the 15-volume Deipnosophistae (Δειπνοσοφισταί, Banquet of the Learned or Scholars at the Dinner Table), written in Greek in the early 3rd century AD in Rome, most of which is still extant. The book is an account - probably fictional - of erudite conversations between diners at three banquets.
The Deipnosophistae of Athenaeus, Book VIII (Part 5 of 5), page 137. Volume IV of the Loeb Classical Library edition, Harvard University Press, 1930. At Bill Thayer's LacusCurtius: Into the Roman World, University of Chicago.
Another translation: Charles Duke Yonge, The Deipnosophists: or, Banquet of the learned, of Athenaeus, Volume 2 (of 3), Book 8, chapter 62, pages 569-570. H.G. Bohn, London, 1854. At archive.org.
The text in Greek, from the Loeb edition:
Κρεώφυλος δ᾽ ἐν τοῖς Ἐφεσίων ῝ Ὥροις οἱ τὴν Ἔφεσον, φησί, κτίζοντες καὶ πολλὰ ταλαιπωρηθέντες ἀπορίᾳ τόπου τὸ τελευταῖον πέμψαντες εἰς θεοῦ ἠρώτων ὅπου τὸ πόλισμα θῶνται. ὁ δ᾽ αὐτοῖς ἔχρησεν ἐνταῦθα οἰκίζειν πόλιν ᾗ ἂν ἰχθὺς δείξῃ καὶ ὗς ἄγριος ὑφηγήσηται.
λέγεται οὖν ὅπου νῦν ἡ κρήνη ἐστὶν Ὑπέλαιος καλουμένη καὶ ὁ ἱερὸς λιμὴν ἁλιέας ἀριστοποιεῖσθαι, καὶ τῶν ἰχθύων τινὰ ἀποθορόντα σὺν ἀνθρακιᾷ εἰσπεσεῖν εἰς φορυτόν, καὶ ἁφθῆναι ὑπ᾽. αὐτοῦ λόχμην, ἐν ᾗ ἔτυχε σῦς ἄγριος ὤν: ὃς ὑπὸ τοῦ πυρὸς θορυβηθεὶς ἐπέδραμε τοῦ ὄρους ἐπὶ πολύ, ὃ δὴ καλεῖται τρηχεῖα, καὶ πίπτει ἀκοντισθεὶς ὅπου νῦν ἐστιν ὁ τῆς Ἀθηνᾶς ναός.
καὶ διαβάντες οἱ Ἐφέσιοι ἐκ τῆς νήσου, ἔτεα εἴκοσιν οἰκήσαντες, τὸ δεύτερον κτίζουσι Τρηχεῖαν καὶ τὰ ἐπὶ Κορησσόν, καὶ ἱερὸν Ἀρτέμιδος ἐπὶ τῇ ἀγορῇ ἱδρύσαντο Ἀπόλλωνός τε τοῦ Πυθίου ἐπὶ τῷ λιμένι.
5. Oracles of Apollo
The situation at the Didyma oracle, which predated the arrival of the Greeks, at the estimated time of the Ephesian foundation is not known. Equally uncertain is state of relations between Miletus and the Ephesian colonists. Would Androklos' small, embattled group have been able to send a mission to all the way Delphi, or would they have been able and just as happy to consult Apollo at nearby Didyma?
Hypelaios (Ὑπέλαιος) has been translated in the Loeb edition as "Oily", while Yonge simply used the Latin "Hypelaeus". Few modern authors have attempted to translate or examine the name, Richard Chandler being a notable exception:
"The city of Androclus was by the atheneum or a temple of Minerva, which was without the city of Lysimachus, and by the fountain called Hypelaeus, or that under the olive tree."
Richard Chandler, Travels in Asia Minor: Or An Account of a Tour Made at the Expense of the Society of Dilettanti, Volume I (of 2), page 146. Joseph Booker, London, 1817.
A German translation of Hypelaion (Ὑπέλαιον) in Strabo (Book 14, chapter 1, section 21) renders the word as "Ölbaumquelle" (literally, oil tree spring), olive tree spring.
Elmar Schwertheim, Kleinasien in der Antike: von den Hethitern bis Konstantin, page 38. C. H. Beck, München, 2005.
The suggestion by another author that hypelaios refers to the oily taste of the spring's water appears to be pure conjecture.
7. Herodotus on the Ionians
Herodotus, Histories, Book 1, chapters 146-147. At Perseus Tufts.
8. Pherecydes of Leros
Pherecydes (Φερεκύδης) was a 5th century BC writer, referred to variously as Pherecydes of Leros (Φερεκύδης ὁ Λέριος) or Pherecydes of Athens (Φερεκύδης ὁ Ἀθηναῖος), with differing opinions on whether they were the same person. He is thought to have been a native of the island of Leros who spent much of his life in Athens.
His Genealogies (οι Γενεαλογίαι), also referred to as Histories, was a work of ten books in the Ionian dialect, recording the popular myths of Greek gods and heroes with a particular emphasis on their genealogies. It was possibly written as propoganda, to demonstrate the divine and heroic pedigrees of prominent families in Attica, who may have been his patrons. The original work is lost, but several passages were quoted or used as sources by later ancient writers.
9. Strabo on the foundation of Ephesus
Strabo, The Geography, Book 14. Translated by H. C. Hamilton and W. Falconer. George Bell & Sons, London, 1903. At Perseus Digital Library.
10. The tomb of Androklos in Ephesus
Helmut Engelmann, Das Grab des Androklos und ein Olympieion (Pausanias VII 2, 9). Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik 112 (1996), pages 131–133.
Elisabeth Rathmayr, Die Präsenz des Ktistes Androklos in Ephesos. Anzeige der Phil.-Hist.Klasse, 145. Jahrgang 2010, 19-60. Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien, 2010.
11. Pausanias on the foundation of Ephesus
Pausanias, Description of Greece, Book 7, chapter 2, sections 6-9. Translated by W. H. S. Jones and H. A. Ormerod, in 4 Volumes. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.; William Heinemann Ltd, London. 1918. At Perseus Digital Library.
|Map, photos and articles: © David John
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Some of the information and photos in this guide to Ephesus
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