6. Xenophon of Athens (Ξενοφῶν, circa 430-354 BC), general, historian and philosopher; pupil of Socrates.
Xenophon, Anabasis (The March Up Country), Book 7, chapter 8, sections 8-23. At Perseus Digital Library.
7. Bust of Xenophon in Bergama Archaeological Museum
Inv. No. VTS 65/615; Museum Inv. No. 784.
Height 49.5 cm.
The bust was found in 1965 along the colonnaded street leading to the Asklepieion. The right side of the head is badly damaged, but has been identified as a portrait of Xenophon by comparison with other similar busts made about the same time ("late Antonine period") and thought to be modelled on an original of the late 4th century BC:
A portrait herm bust of Xenophon in the Graeco-Roman Museum, Alexandria, Egypt, inscribed with the name Xenophon in Greek on the front of the herm;
A marble herm bust in the Prado, Madrid. Inv. No. 100-E.
Other portrait busts have also been found on the colonnaded street, including one of a philosopher, perhaps Socrates (also in Bergama Museum, Inv. No. 772).
8. Lysimachus, "King of Thrace"
Lysimachus (Λυσίμαχος, Lysimachos, circa 360-281 BC) was born in Pella, the capital of Macedonia, and was the son of Agathocles, a Thessalian noble and favourite of Alexander the Great's father Philip II. He only ruled over the Hellenized coastal areas of Thrace; much of the interior was still controlled by Thracian tribes. Seuthes III (Greek, Σεύθης, ruled circa 331-300 BC), king of the Odrysians of eastern Thrace, proved a challenge for Lysimachus. They engaged in at least two battles, the results of which were inconclusive, and it is thought that they made a peace treaty.
See A brief history of Thrace
9. Lysimachus' treasure in Pergamon
Strabo (Στράβων, 64/63 BC - circa AD 24 AD), Greek historian, geographer and philosopher from Amaseia in Pontus (today Amasya, Turkey).
The Geography of Strabo, Book 13, Chapter 4, Section 1. Edited by H. L. Jones. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA; William Heinemann Ltd, London, 1924. At Perseus Digital Library.
"It is pertinent to add here an account of Attalus, because he too is one of the Athenian eponymoi. A Macedonian of the name of Docimus, a general of Antigonus, who afterwards surrendered both himself and his property to Lysimachus, had a Paphlagonian eunuch called Philetaerus. All that Philetaerus did to further the revolt from Lysimachus, and how he won over Seleucus, will form an episode in my account of Lysimachus. Attalus, however, son of Attalus and nephew of Philetaerus, received the kingdom from his cousin Eumenes, who handed it over. The greatest of his achievements was his forcing the Gauls to retire from the sea into the country which they still hold."
"And at the same time Philetaerus, to whom the property of Lysimachus had been entrusted, aggrieved at the death of Agathocles and suspicious of the treatment he would receive at the hands of Arsinoe, seized Pergamus on the Caicus, and sending a herald offered both the property and himself to Seleucus.
Lysimachus hearing of all these things lost no time in crossing into Asia [281 BC], and assuming the initiative met Seleucus, suffered a severe defeat and was killed. Alexander, his son by the Odrysian woman, after interceding long with Lysandra, won his body and afterwards carried it to the Chersonesus and buried it, where his grave is still to be seen between the village of Cardia and Pactye."
Pausanias, Description of Greece, Book 1, chapter 8, section 1, and chapter 10, sections 4-5. At Perseus Digital Library.
10. Names of the rulers of Pergamon
Scholars appear neither certain nor united about the etymology, meaning or significance of many ancient Greek names. Here are some of translations and interpretations of the names of Hellenistic rulers offered by various sources.
Alexander (Ἀλέξανδρος, Alexandros), from alexein, to defend, and andros, man; hence defender of mankind.
Lysimachus (Λυσίμαχος), from λυσις (lysis) a release, loosening, and μαχη (mache) battle. The name has been variously interpreted as describing one who makes war, literally "looses battle" (perhaps as in "Cry 'Havoc!', and let slip the dogs of war" in Shakespeare's Julius Caesar); "free battle"; "freedom fighter"; and even one who ends war by a "release from battle".
Seleucus (Σέλευκος, Seleukos), possibly from λευκος (leukos), bright, white; hence brilliant, shining.
Philetaerus (Φιλέταιρος), fond of one's comrades or the good comrade.
Eumenes (Ευμένης), favourable, benign, genial, propitious.
Attalos (Ἄτταλος), increased, nourished.
Aristonikos (Αριστόνικος), the best victor or gaining glorious victory.
11. Ptolemy Keraunos
Ptolemy Keraunos (Πτολεμαῖος Κεραυνός, Ptolemy Thunderbolt; died 279 BC), the eldest son of Ptolemy I of Egypt. When his younger half-brother Ptolemy (later Ptolemy II) was named heir to the throne in 282 BC he left Egypt and went to live at the court of Lysimachus. His half-sister Arsinoe (later Arsinoe II of Egypt) had married Lysimachus, and another sister Lysandra was the wife of Lysimachus' son Agathocles.
After the death of Lysimachus and Seleucus in 281 BC, he had himself acclaimed as king of Macedonia by the army and married Arsinoe. She plotted against him, and he killed two of her sons by Lysimachus (Lysimachus and Philip) in 279 BC. She fled to Samothraki where she took refuge. Shortly after Keraunos was captured and killed by the invading Gaulish leader Bolgios. Arsinoe returned to Egypt where she married her brother Ptolemy II.
12. The Gauls in Anatolia
There are few accounts of the Celts in Greece and Asia, but Pausanias provided a short summary of the conflicts between the Gauls (Galatians) and Pergamens.
"The greater number of the Gauls crossed over to Asia by ship and plundered its coasts. Some time after, the inhabitants of Pergamus, that was called of old Teuthrania, drove the Gauls into it from the sea. Now this people occupied the country on the farther side of the river Sangarius capturing Ancyra [Ἄγκυρα, today Ankara, Turkey], a city of the Phrygians, which Midas son of Gordius had founded in former time. And the anchor, which Midas found, was even as late as my time in the sanctuary of Zeus, as well as a spring called the Spring of Midas, water from which they say Midas mixed with wine to capture Silenus. Well then, the Pergameni took Ancyra and Pessinus which lies under Mount Agdistis, where they say that Attis lies buried.
They [the Pergamenes] have spoils from the Gauls, and a painting which portrays their deed against them. The land they dwell in was, they say, in ancient times sacred to the Cabeiri, and they claim that they are themselves Arcadians, being of those who crossed into Asia with Telephus. Of the wars that they have waged no account has been published to the world, except that they have accomplished three most notable achievements; the subjection of the coast region of Asia, the expulsion of the Gauls therefrom, and the exploit of Telephus against the followers of Agamemnon, at a time when the Greeks after missing Troy, were plundering the Meian plain thinking it Trojan territory. Now I will return from my digression."
Pausanias, Description of Greece, Book 1, chapter 4, sections 5-6. At Perseus Digital Library.
13. Attalus I and Aegina
Aegina was captured by the Roman fleet commanded by Proconsul Publius Sulpicius Galba Maximus in 210 BC, during the First Macedonian War (214-205 BC). The fleet of Attalus I may have been involved in taking the island. The Greek historian Polybius (Πολύβιος, circa 200-118 BC), recounted the events when commenting on a speech by Cassander of Aegina at a meeting of the Achaean League at Megalopolis in 186/185 BC, during the reign of Eumenes II, Attalus' son and successor.
"Next rose Cassander of Aegina and reminded the Achaeans of 'The misfortunes which the Aeginetans had met with through being members of the Achaean league; when Publius Sulpicius sailed against them with the Roman fleet, and sold all the unhappy Aeginetans into slavery.' In regard to this subject I have already related how the Aetolians, having got possession of Aegina in virtue of their treaty with Rome, sold it to Attalus for thirty talents."
Polybius, Histories, Book 22, chapter 11. At Perseus Digital Library.
If there was a mention of the sale of Aegina to Attalus earlier in Polybius' Histories it has not survived. He did mention Publius Sulpicius' harsh reply to pleas by the captured Aeginetans that they be ransomed rather than enslaved (Book 9, chapter 42).
According to Livy (Titus Livius, 64/59 BC - 17 AD), citing Valerius Antias (first century BC), Aegina was presented as a gift to Attalus along with the war elephants given up by Philip V of Macedonia according to the terms of his peace treaty with Rome in 196 BC, following his defeat by Proconsul Titus Quinctius Flamininus at the Battle of Cynoscephalae in 197 BC. However, Attalus is thought to have died in Pergamon before or shortly after the battle.
"Valerius Antias adds that the island of Aegina and the elephants were presented as a gift to Attalus, who was absent ..."
Livy, The History of Rome, Book 33, chapter 30. At Perseus Digital Library.
14. The death of Attalus I
Livy, The History of Rome, Book 33, chapters 1-2. At Perseus Digital Library.
"At the same time King Attalus, who had fallen ill at Thebes and then removed from Thebes to Pergamum, died in his seventy second year, after he had been on the throne for forty four years. Fortune had bestowed upon this man nothing but wealth to give him hope of royal power. By using this both wisely and splendidly he brought it about that he seemed worthy of the throne, first in his own eyes, then in those of others. Then when in a single battle he had conquered the Gauls, a people the more terrible to Asia by reason of their recent arrival, he assumed the title of king, and thenceforth his greatness of soul always matched the greatness of his distinction. He ruled his subjects with perfect justice, exhibited remarkable fidelity to his allies, was courteous to his wife and sons — four survived him — and kind and generous to his friends; he left a kingdom so strong and well-established that possession of it was handed down to the third generation."
The History of Rome, Book 33, chapter 21. At Perseus Digital Library.
15. The altar on Aegina
Aegina Archaeological Museum, Greece. Inv. No. 1331.
Height 48 cm, diameter 28.5 cm.
The cylindrical altar of poros limestone was found at the harbour of Aegina, near the Church of Kimisis Tis Theotokou (Κοίμησις της Θεοτόκου, Παναγίτσα). The lettering of the inscription was painted red, and is thought to have been originally gilded.
Διὶ καὶ Ἀθηνᾶι
καὶ οἱ ὑπ’ αὐτοὺς ἡγεμόνες
To Zeus and Athena, for King Attalus, (dedicated by) Satyrinos, Kallimachos and their subordinate officers and soldiers.
Inscription IG IV² 2 765 (SEG 25 320).
See: Κωνσταντίνος Κουρουνιώτος, Αιγίνης μουσεϊον (Konstantinos Kourouniotes, Aigina Museum). In: Αρχαιολογική Εφημερίς, 1913, pages 86-98 (altar on page 91, Βωμός μεζ επιγραφής γραπτής, and fig. 8). Αθήναις Αρχαιολογική Εταιρεία (Archaiologike Ephemeris, journal of the Archaeological Society of Athens). P. D. Sakellariou, Athens, 1913. At Heidelberg University Digital Library.
This is one of a number of altars and other dedications to Attalus I found at Pergamon and elsewhere, thought to be among the earliest signs of the cult worship of deified members of the Attalid dynasty. From a fragmentary honorific decree found in Athens (inscription IG II² 885; Epigraphical Museum, Athens, Inv. No. EM 2672) it seems that Attalus was made synnaos (σύνναος, temple-sharing deity) with Aegina's mythical hero Aiakos (Αἰακός, son of Zeus and Aegina, grandfather of Achilles and Ajax). There was also an Attaleion, a centre for the cult of the Pergamene kings, in Aegina (IG IV² 2 749, honorific decree for Kleon; OGIS 3291 47), thought to have been near the Temple of Apollo at Kolonna.
16. The statues of defeated Gauls at Pergamon
The history of the two sculptures is conjectural. Following its discovery, the "Capitoline Gaul" was at first known as the "Dying Gladiator", and the "Ludovisi Gaul" was named "Arria and Paetus". However, the figures were subsequently identified as Gauls (or Galatians) and associated with Pergamon, and it was considered that they could only have been produced by Greek sculptors. It has also been suggested that they were made at Pergamon, perhaps even around the time of the bronze originals.
"With our present knowledge of the history of art, we cannot suppose that sculpture in Rome was ever capable of originating a figure of such wonderfully powerful modelling, and such dignity of pathos ; nor is the choice of subject in itself credible."
Ernest Arthur Gardner, A handbook of Greek sculpture, page 454. MacMillan and Co., London, 1897.
Pliny the Elder mentioned a number of artists who had made (bronze) sculptures of battles between the Attalids and Galatians, but did not say when these works were made or where they stood.
"Several artists have represented the battles fought by Attalus and Eumenes with the Galli; Isigonus, for instance, Pyromachus, Stratonicus, and Antigonus, who also wrote some works in reference to his art."
Pliny the Elder, Natural History, Book 34, chapter 19. At Perseus Digital Library.
These names and others have been discovered on inscribed statue bases at Pergamon. A little later in the same chapter, Pliny wrote that a sculptor named Epigonus had made a statue of a trumpeter.
"Epigonus, who has attempted nearly all the above-named classes of works [statues of gods, philosophers, comic playwrights and athletes], has distinguished himself more particularly by his Trumpeter, and his Child in Tears, caressing its murdered mother."
Inscribed signatures of a sculptor named Epigonos (Επίγονος ἐποίησεν) have also been found at Pergamon.
See: Max Fraenkel, Altertümer von Pergamon, Band 8, Die Inschriften von Pergamon, I. Bis zum Ende der Königszeit, Nos. 12, 22b, 29, 31, 32. Königliche Museen zur Berlin. Verlag von W. Spemann, Berlin, 1890. At Heidelberg University Digital Library.
Since a large trumpet lies on the base of the "Capitoline Gaul" statue, encircling the figure, many scholars have believed that it is the "Trumpeter" (tubicen) by Epigonus. However the sculpture has been extensively restored, and many parts, including the sword lying on the base, are modern.