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Ancient Greek mythology, religion and art
The mythical twin heroes, Kastor (Κάστωρ, beaver; Latin, Castor) and Polydeukes (Πολυδεύκης, much sweet wine; Latin, Polydeuces or Pollux) were known as the Dioskouroi (Greek Διόσκουροι, sons of Zeus; Latin, Dioscuri). 
The various versions of the myths concerning the twins are inconsistent and often vague. One twin was said to be the immortal son of the Aetolian princess Leda (Λήδα, daughter of King Thestius) and Zeus, who disguised himself as a swan to have sex with her. The other, conceived the same night, was the mortal son of Leda and her husband King Tyndareos of Sparta (Τυνδάρεως). However, which of the twins was immortal is not clear: it is generally thought that Polydeukes was the immortal son of Zeus, and Kastor the mortal son of Tyndareos.
According to one version of the myths, the coupling of Leda and Zeus as a swan produced two eggs, from which hatched one of the twins and Helen of Troy. At the same time Leda also give birth to the other twin and Clytaemnestra, conceived by more conventional means with Tyndareos. Helen was to marry Menelaos, king of Sparta, but her abduction by the Trojan prince Paris (see below
) led to the Trojan War. Clytaemnestra married Menelaos' brother Agamemnon, king of Mycenae, but murdered him on his return from Troy (see below
The Dioskouroi were also half-brothers of Timandra, Phoebe, Herakles, and Philonoe.
The twins were closely associated with horses, often depicted as mounted warriors or hunters (such cult images of mythical horsemen were widespread among ancient cultures) and particularly revered by cavalry soldiers.
They also appeared as warriors and hunters in several mythical tales, including the hunting of the Kalydonian Boar (see photos below
), the feud between Sparta and Athens following the abduction of Helen by Theseus, and the expedition of Jason and the Argonauts.
There were also tales of cattle theft (see photo below
), abduction of women, rivalry, trickery and revenge involving the Dioskouroi and their cousins Lynkeus and Idas (the Apharidae, sons of Aphareus), twin brothers from Messenia 
. The growing emnity between the two sets of twins ended with Idas ambushing and killing Kastor, and Polydeukes killing Lynkeus.
According to other versions of the myths, both the Dioskouroi were killed in combat by Lynkeus and Idas during a siege of Sparta (Lacedaemon). In the Iliad
, during the siege of Troy Helen asks why her brothers are not among the Greek besiegers (Achaeans) she can see from the walls of the city. Homer tells us that, unknown to her, both were already dead and buried:
"'I see, moreover, many other Achaeans whose names I could tell you, but there are two whom I can nowhere find, Castor, breaker of horses, and Pollux the mighty boxer; they are children of my mother, and own brothers to myself. Either they have not left Lacedaemon, or else, though they have brought their ships, they will not show themselves in battle for the shame and disgrace that I have brought upon them.'
She knew not that both these heroes were already lying under the earth in their own land of Lacedaemon."
, Book III.
Prose translation by Samuel Butler.
After Kastor's death, Polydeukes asked Zeus to allow his twin brother share his immortality so that they could remain together. Zeus transformed them both into the stars today known as the Gemini (Latin for twins) constellation, the heavenly twins. Some ancient authors wrote that they shared immortality in turns.
They are sometimes referred to as the Tyndaridae or Tyndarids (Τυνδαρίδαι, Tyndaridai), a reference to their father/stepfather King Tyndareos of Sparta. The worship of the Dioskouroi appears to have had its origins and centre at Sparta, where they were associated with the Spartan tradition of dual kingship, and there were many sanctuaries dedicated to the twins around the Peloponnese. The cult spread throughout Greece, and they were also worshipped by the Etruscans (as Kastur and Pultuce), Romans and Gauls.
They were also known as Anakes (Ἄνακες, kings; also translated as "protectors", "guardians" and "on high"; Plutarch, Life of Theseus
, 33.1), their annual religious festival the Anakeia (Ἀνάκεια), and their temple the Anakeion (Ἀνάκειον).
There was an Anakeion beneath the Sanctuary of Aglauros on the east slope of the Athens Acropolis. Pausanias
described a sculpture group and paintings dedicated to them there:
"The sanctuary of the Dioscuri is ancient. They themselves are represented as standing, while their sons are seated on horses. Here Polygnotus has painted the marriage of the daughters of Leucippus, was a part of the gods' history, but Micon
those who sailed with Jason to the Colchians, and he has concentrated his attention upon Acastus and his horses."
Description of Greece, Book 1
, chapter 18, section 1.
Pausanias also mentions that "at Kephale [in Attica] the chief cult is that of the Dioskouroi, for the inhabitants call them the Megaloi Theoi [Great Gods]".
Description of Greece, Book 1
, chapter 31, section 1.
In many places, such as the Aegean island of Thasos (see below
), the Dioskouroi were also worshipped as protectors of seamen.
According to the poet and collector of epigrams Meleager of Gadara (Μελέαγρος ὁ Γαδαρεύς, 1st century BC), the cyclamen (κυκλάμινος) was named after the Dioskouroi:
"... the Muses' cyclamen which takes its name from the twin sons of Zeus." 
In Greek and Roman art the Dioskouroi are usually depicted as naked apart from a pilos (πῖλος) conical cap (see Medusa
), chlamys (χλαμύς, short cloak) and sometimes boots, each holding a spear and often on or with a horse. On coins they are sometimes shown with a star above each head (see photos above right
Detail of one of the Dioskouroi statues
in the Naples Archaeological Museum.
See photos below.
The Dioscuri on a bronze coin of
the Roman Republic, 211-170 BC.
National Museum of Rome,
Palazzo Massimo alle Terme.
The Dioscuri on a coin of the Roman
Republic from Akragas (Agrigento), Sicily.
Agrigento Regional Archaeological Museum.
Heads of the Dioskouri, one upright and
the other inverted, on a silver drachm
from Istros (Ίστρος), a Greek colony
founded by Miletus in the 7th century BC
on the Black Sea coast (near modern
Istria, Romania). Circa 400 BC. 
Alpha Bank Numsimatic Collection,
One of the Dioskouri on the
corner of a marble relief on
the "Sarcophagus of Meleagros".
From Dyrrachium (Durres, Albania). Roman
period, first half of the 2nd century AD.
The Dioskouri twins sit on horseback on
either side of a relief frieze depicting the
myth of the Kalydonian hero Meleagros.
Istanbul Archaeological Museum.
Inv. No. 2100 T. Cat. Mendel 4.
Two charioteers, perhaps the Dioskouroi, among horsemen
on an Athenian black-figure spouted krater (large bowl).
Geometric period, 735-720 BC (LGIIa). From Thebes.
British Museum. Inv. No. GR 1899.2-19.1.
|The other side of the krater has a painting of a man grasping a woman by the wrist as he turns towards a ship with two rows of oarsmen. Thought to be an early representation of a myth, perhaps Theseus abducting Helen, Paris abducting Helen (the cause of the Trojan war), or Theseus fleeing King Minos of Crete with Ariadne. If the woman is Helen, then the two charioteers may be her brothers Kastor and Polydeukes.
See the other side of the krater on the Homer page.
See also the Judgement of Paris in Greek, Etruscan and Roman art on the Hermes page.
An Archaic high relief depicting a scene from the myth of the Dioskouroi and the Apharidae.
Part of a poros (limestone) metope of the Sikyonian "monopteros", an open
Doric colonnade at the Treasury of the Sikyonians, Delphi. Circa 560 BC.
Delphi Archaeological Museum, Greece. Inv. No. 1322.
|The five surviving metopes from the Sikyonian monopteros were excavated at Delphi in 1894, in and around the Sikyonian Treasury. 
The Kastor and Polydeukes are shown walking to the right, followed by their Theban cousin Idas (Ἴδας, one of the the Apharidae twins), leading cattle as booty from their raid on Arcadia. Around 20 centimetres of the left side of the relief are missing, and it is thought that Idas' twin brother Lynkeus (Λυνκεύς) followed him. Painted inscriptions (two barely visible, on the right) showed the names of the figures.
All three men are shown in profile, at the same size, identical in dress and pose, and walk in step with the left leg in front. Each is naked apart from a chlamys (short cloak), fastened at the right shoulder and open at the side, a thick belt and sandals. Each carries two spears in the left hand, resting on the left shoulder, and another two horizontally in the right hand.
The oxen, shown smaller in scale, walk behind the men in rows of three, with three sets of legs and three heads. The heads are shown one above the other, with those in the rear rows at the top. The heads in the two rear rows are in profile, while those in the front rows are turned to face the viewer frontally. Strangely, the horns and ears of the oxen are shown in front of the men's cloaks. The composition as a whole has surprising depth and a dynamic rhythm, and must have been even more impressive when it was first sculpted and painted.
The brightly painted metopes had an unusual width-to-height ratio of 3:2.
Approximate dimensions: height 58 cm, length 87 cm, depth 16 cm, depth of relief 8 cm.
Fragments of an Archaic high relief depicting the prow of the Argo ship. On the left,
Polydeukes (name inscribed), one of the Dioskouroi, disembarks from the ship on horseback.
On the right stand Orpheus (name inscribed) and an unidentified musician, both holding lyres.
Part of a poros metope of the Sikyonian "monopteros", Delphi. Circa 560 BC.
It is thought that the image of the ship occupied three
metopes along the short side of the monopteros.
Delphi Archaeological Museum, Greece.
Twin marble kouroi statues originally identified as
the brothers Kleobis and Biton  of Argos, but now
thought by some scholars to depict the Dioskouroi.
Island marble. Circa 580 BC.
Delphi Archaeological Museum, Greece.
Statue A (right) Inv. No. 467, Statue B (left) Inv. No. 1524.
|The first of the two over life-size marble statues, Statue A (right in the photo above), and part of its inscribed rectangular base were excavated in 1893 near the Athenian Treasury, Delphi, and the second statue, Statue B (left), was discovered in 1894. Parts of the second base was discovered in 1907, built into a wall of the Roman baths.
Statue A is almost complete, and the soles of the feet on one of the bases allowed archaeologists to match them. Statue B is more fragmentary and has been restored; the lower legs and part of the base are modern additions. Both statues and bases are badly weathered, but the figures still have a remarkable intensity and presence, despite - or maybe because of - their exaggerated anatomies.
The base of Statue A (Base B) is inscribed with the artist's signature [ΠΟΛΥ]ΜΕΔΕΣ ΕΠΟΙΗΣΕΗ ΑΡΓΕΙΟΣ ([Poly]medes of Argos made me; there are a number of varying readings of this signature, see images below), and it is probable that both statues were made by the same sculptor. Another inscribed line and the inscription on the base of Statue B (Base A) are illegible. The perhaps optimistic reading of letters on Base A as part of the name Biton remains a subject of scholarly debate.
The identification of the statues as depictions of the Argive heroes Kleobis and Biton appears to rest on the signature by an Argive sculptor and the questionable reading of Biton's name on Base A, tied to a mention of statues of the brothers by Herodotus . It should be noted that Herodotus was relating a story said to have been told by the Athenian statesman Solon to King Croesus of Lydia (it is doubted that these two men ever met); he did not write that he had seen these statues himself or that they still existed in his day.
The theory that the statues were among several dedications to the Dioskouri in Delphi has also yet to be proved, and also rests on conjectural readings of the inscriptions. As in the case of many ancient Greek sculptures, especially Archaic kouroi and kore, without recognizable attributes asscociated with particular deities and other figures, positive identification remains elusive.
Statue A: height 216 cm; head height 30 cm; base height 19 cm, width 38 cm, length 70 cm.
Statue B: restored height 218 cm.
The back of the head of statue A.
Other kouros statues
on My Favourite Planet:
The colossal "Isches Kouros" from Samos,
"The Ram-Carrier of Thasos"
and smaller kouroi from Samos:
Samos photo gallery pages 4-5
A bronze kouros statuette in the Daedalic
style in the Delphi Archaeological Museum:
Daidalos page, MFP People
The inscription on the base of Statue A, with the signature of the sculptor Polymedes of Argos.
Each statue and its base are a single piece.
"The figure, 2.16 metres in height, is of one piece with the base, which is rectangular in shape,
and follows the outside edges of the feet. Such a base, wrought out of the same block as the
statue, was called Σφέλας [sfelas], as is proved by the inscription on the colossal Apollo at Delos."
Frederik Poulson, Delphi, Chapter 6, The Delphian twins, page 90.
Translated by G. C. Richards. Gyldendal, London, 1920. At archive.org.
Drawing of the bases of the Delphian twins statues. The image of the base
of Statue B (top) has been turned around for easier reading of the inscription.
Source: Frederik Poulson, Delphi, Chapter 6, The Delphian twins, page 95.
Translated by G. C. Richards. Gyldendal, London, 1920. At archive.org.
(From Oesterreichische Jahreshefte, xiii, 1910, 41 ff.)
Jason, the leader of the Argonauts, places his hands over the eyes of the Thracian
king Phineas (Φινέας) to cure his blindness. Kastor and Polydeukes, right, assist.
Fragment of a black-figure Corinthian krater made in the workshop of the
Cavalcade Painter, around 560 BC. Found in the Sanctuary of Artemis, Sani, Halkidiki.
In the lower register is a standing lion. Another fragment shows
Zetes and Kalais (the Boreads, sons of Boreas), chasing the Harpies.
Thessaloniki Archaeological Museum. Inv. No. AMΘ 1. S. Andreadis Collection.
Detail of a black-figure column krater (bowl for mixing wine and water)
with two youths flanked by their horses and dogs.
From Vulci. Made in southern Italy, around 540 BC.
Attributed to the Inscriptions Painter (Chalcidian Group).
The figures have not been identified. Perhaps the Dioskouroi or two other heroes.
Pausanias noted that at the Anakeion, the sanctuary the Dioskouroi in Athens,
they "are represented as standing, while their sons are seated on horses."
Pausanias, Description of Greece, Book 1, chapter 18, section 1.
British Museum. GR 1843.11-3.38 (Vase B 15). Canino Collection.
The lid of a Paestan red-figure lekanis  depicting a scene from the myth of
Orestes and Elektra: the Dioskouroi appear at the tomb of Agamemnon.
Attributed to the Floreale Painter, circa 330 BC. Excavated in 1954
at Tomb 5 in the necropolis at Laghetto, just outside Paestum.
National Archaeological Museum of Paestum, Campania, Italy.
|In Greek mythology and literature, Agamemnon, king of Mycenae, was murdered on his return from the Trojan War by his wife Clytaemnestra and her lover Aigisthos. Orestes and Elektra, the children of Agamemnon and Clytaemnestra, avenged their father by killing their mother. The cycle of revenge and murder was mentioned in the poetry of Homer and Pindar and was the subject of plays by the Athenian tragedians Aeschylus, Euripides and Sophocles. At the end of Euripides' Electra (Ἠλέκτρα, written around 410-413 BC), the deified Dioskouroi appear and tell Orestes and Elektra that their mother's punishment was just, but they must nevertheless atone for their matricide and purge their souls.
At the front of this lekanis lid, as it appears in the photo above, Elektra sits mourning her father on his tomb. She is veiled and holds what appears to be a vase, perhaps Agamemnon's funerary urn. What appear to be two white teardrops can be seen in front of her face, but the paint on the vase is too worn to be certain. The Dioskouroi twins approach her from either side (see detail below; unfortunately the lekanis is displayed at the corner of a glass case, and its position and reflections made it it impossible to take a photo of both twins). Each is naked apart from a pilos (πῖλος) conical cap (see Medusa), chlamys (short cloak) and boots, and each holds a spear and another object which is offered to Elektra. It is uncertain what the twin on the left is holding, but his brother to the right of Elektra offers a golden wreath.
On other vases depicting this subject, two similar figures, dressed in the same way, have been identified as Orestes and Pylades, his cousin who, according to some versions of the story, assisted in the killing of Clytaemnestra and Aigisthos.
Orestes killing Clytaemnestra on a bronze Etruscan mirror, on the Homer page;
a "Melian" relief of Orestes and Elektra at the tomb of Agamemnon, on the Homer page.
One of the Dioskouroi with Elektra on the lid of the Lekanis in Paestum.
Inscribed votive relief of the Dioskouroi from the cemeteries
of Thasos, Macedonia, Greece. Late Hellenistic period.
Thasos Archaeological Museum.
|The relief shows the Dioskouroi on horseback, each with one arm raised and facing a woman in the centre, standing at an altar. It is thought that she may be their sister Helen. Two cockerels are shown on either side of her.
The popularity of the Dioskouroi on the northen Aegean island of Thasos (Θάσος) may be due to the influence of Paros, which colonized the island around 680 BC. The Dioskouria festival included public feasts (symposia). The main Diokouroi sanctuary of Thasos is thought to have been at a location known as Pataria, outside the city walls, where several reliefs depicting the twins with a woman, perhaps Helen, have been discovered. At Alyki (Αλυκή), on the southeast coast of the island, a sanctuary built between the 6th and 5th centuries BC may also have been dedicated to the twins. Graffiti inscriptions found there are prayers to the Dioskouroi for "salvation from the dangers of the sea" and "safe voyages".
Detail of an Etruscan bronze mirror with incised decoration depicting three figures,
interpreted as three of the Cabeiri (Κάβειροι, Kabeiroi), also known as "the Great
Gods" (Μεγάλοι Θεοί, Megali Theoi). The Dioskouroi were known to the Etruscans
as Kastur and Pultuce, and together as the Tinas Cliniiaras (Sons of Tinia, the
Etruscan equivalent of Zeus). They sit either side of an unidentified deity in a
temple, indicated by an Ionic column and part of an architrave.
Mid 3rd - early 2nd century BC. Diameter 13 cm, length (including handle) 27cm.
Civic Archaeological Museum, Milan. Inv. No. A 0.9.1002.
From the Ancona Collection, then the Seletti Collection.
Fragmentary marble statue base with a relief of the Dioscuri with their sister Helen of Troy.
30-20 BC, Roman period copy of a 4th century BC original.
The side of the base to the left has part of a relief of Helen standing
in front of their mother Leda (see photo below). The Hellenistic statue
of Juno/Hera known as the "Juno Cesi" now stands on the restored base.
Sala del Galata (Hall of the Gaul), Palazzo Nuovo,
Capitoline Museums, Rome. Inv. No. MC 1961.
Fragmentary relief of enthroned Leda with Helen of Troy
on the left side of the statue base above.
A marble statue of a warrior, perhaps one of the Dioskouroi.
Roman period, 200-1 BC. Found in the
sea off the coast Marsala, west Sicily.
The naked figure carries a small round shield and a military
cloak on his left arm and a sword belt across his chest.
Lilibeo-Baglio Anselmi Regional Archaeological Museum, Marsala. Inv. No. 4583.
Colossal marble statues of Castor and Pollux, the Dioscuri.
2nd century AD, based on Greek models of the 5th century BC, particularly the Doryphoros
(spear carrier) of Polykleitos. Found at Baiae, in the Bay of Naples, in the area of the baths,
near the "Tempio di Venere" (Temple of Venus).
The twins are usually represented nude; each wears a chlamys riding cloak and pilos
(πῖλος) conical cap. They are also nearly always shown with horses, here reduced to heads
which double as supports for the marble figures. Both figures hold swords in their left hands.
National Archaeological Museum, Naples. Inv. No. 131209 and 230872.
|The statues of Castor and Pollux in the Naples Archaeological Museum.
There appears to be no indication of which twin is which. Traces of
dark red colour can be seen on the hair of the statue on the left.
A bronze lamina (plaque) inscribed with a dedication in archaic Latin to the Dioscuri.
Castorei Podlouqueique qurois
To Castor and Pollux, youths
Late 6th century BC. Found at the Sanctuary of the Thirteen Altars,
Lavinium (today Pratica di Mare), an ancient port of Latium, around
30 km south of Rome and 22 km southeast of Ostia.
Height 5.0 - 5.3 cm, width 29.1 cm, thickness 0.10 - 0.15 cm.
National Museum of Rome, Baths of Diocletian. Inv. No. 135931.
Inscription CIL I(2): 2.4, 2883.
|The lamina, known as "La Tabella Lanuvina", is broken in two pieces, which were discovered separately in August 1958, during excavations directed by Ferdinando Castagnoli (1917-1988) of the University of Rome. The five holes in the thin plaque, one at each corner and another in the centre, were for attaching it to another object, perhaps one of the thirteen altars.
The inscription, written in reverse letters and from right to left, is the earliest evidence of the cult of the Dioscuri in Latium. In this inscription their names and title appear to be direct transliterations into Latin from the Greek: Castorei (Κάστωρης, Kastores), Podlouquei (Πολυδεύκης, Polydeukes) and qurois (κούροις, kourois, youths), which has also been translated as "young knights" and "sons (of Zeus)". The twins were often referred to in Latin as the Castorei (Castores).
Ferdinando Castagnoli, Dedica arcaica lavinate a Castore e Polluce, in Studi e materiali di storia delle religioni, Volume 30, Fasc. 1, pages 109-117. Cesare Marzioli Editori, Rome, 1959. At Università degli Studi di Roma "La Sapienza".
The three remaining Corinthian columns, part of the entablature and
the raised substructure of the Temple of the Dioscuri (Castores) on the
south side of the Sacra Via (right of the temple), in the Roman Forum.
|Worship of Castor and Pollux is thought to have been adopted by the Roman aristocratic party in the early 5th century BC, as the patrons of the knights. According to legend, two mysterious horsemen led the Romans to victory over the Etruscan Tarquins and Latins at the Battle of Lake Regillus around 499 BC. Shortly after, the pair, identified as the Dioscuri, appeared watering their horses at the Pool of Juturna, near the Temple of Vesta in the Forum, before announcing the Roman victory and then disappearing.
The temple was probably built by the general and dictator Aulus Postumius Albus circa 484 BC . The Roman knights held an annual parade in front of the temple on the 15th July. It was restored after 200 BC, and reconstructed in 117 BC by the consul Lucius Caecilius Metellus Dalmaticus following his victory over the Dalmatians. After being destroyed by fire in 14 or 9 BC, it was rebuilt during the reign of Emperor Augustus and inaugurated in 6 AD by Tiberius (later Augustus' successor). Although it was later restored several times, the existing remains are thought to be mostly from the Augustan period, apart from the podium which is that constructed by Metellus.
The peripteral temple, built on a podium approximately 32 x 49.5 metres and 7 metres tall, had 8 Corinthian columns, 12.5 metres tall, at either end, and eleven on each side. Like many of the ancient buildings of the Forum, it was built on a high substructure because of the marshy, uneven ground of the valley. The senate often met here and the building served as the office of the weights and measures inspectors. It had a tribune for orators and booths for bankers (or money changers).
Directly in front of the temple, the shrine of Juturna, the nymph of healing waters, was in the form of the Pool of Juturna (Lacus Juturnae) fed by a spring. Following the victory of the Roman consul and general Lucius Aemilius Paullus Macedonicus (circa 229-160 BC) over the Macedonian king Perseus at the First Battle of Pydna in 168 BC, the Dioscuri are said to have appeared again in the Forum. Aemilius Paullus built a fountain at the shrine, with a monumental basin in which were statues of the horses of the Dioscuri. The temple (or chapel) of Juturna was rebuilt during the reign of Trajan (98-117 AD).
The Temple of Castor and Pollux
in the Forum, Rome.
Roman denarius showing Castor and Pollux
with their horses drinking from a fountain.
Issued by C. Publicius Malleolus,
A. Postumius Albinus and
L. (Caecilius) Metellus, circa 96 BC.
Palazzo Massimo alle Terme,
National Museum of Rome.
Colossal marble statues of Castor and Pollux with standing with horses
on the balustrade flanking the top of the Cordonata, the stairway up
to the Piazza del Campidoglio, the square of the Capitoline Hill, Rome.
|The balustrade, designed by Michelangelo, is decorated with several sculptures, previously including two other colossal statues of Castor and Pollux which are now in front of the Palazzo del Quirinale. 
The present statues were discovered either in the Ghetto or in the ruins of the Theatre of Pompey. It is thought that they may have originally stood at the temple of the Dioscuri in the area of the Circus Flaminius (aedes Castori Polluci in Circo Flaminio), about which little is known. 
"The two Colossal Statues of the Dioscuri were discovered under Pius IV [1559-1565], apparently during the construction of the synagogue in the Ghetto *; and for a time lay, unrestored, behind the Balustrade. Some years later they were restored by the sculptor Valsoldo, and in 1583 they were erected on the Balustrade, at the head of La Cordonnata, or grand staircase ascending from the Piazza Aracoeli to the Capitol Square.
The figures are recognizable as the Dioscuri mainly by the pileus on their heads and by the horses which stand beside them. The horses are represented on a small scale in conformity with the principle of ancient art which emphasized the principal figures even at the cost of truth to nature. Each of the youths held his horse with one hand by the bridle, which was presumably added in bronze, while with his other he grasped a wooden or bronze spear. The execution is purely decorative in style and quite insignificant. In antiquity the two statues were probably placed as the ideal watchers of some monumental entrance."
* "Rom. Mittheilungen, VI, p. 33, According to the inscription on the back of the base of the figure to the right (as we look from the Piazza Aracoeli), both statues were found among the ruins of the Theatre of Pompey. The above statement, however, given on the authority of Flaminio Vacca (Berichte der philolog.-histor. Klasse der Sachs. Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften, 1881, p. 70, No. 52), seems more worthy of credence, as Vacca writes as an eye-witness of the discovery."
Wolfgang Helbig (1839-1915), Guide to the public collections of classical antiquities in Rome, Volume I, pages 287-288. Karl Baedeker, Leipzig, 1895.
The Dioscuri statue on the right side
of the steps up to the Piazza del
Campidoglio. Both statues show
the twins wearing a pilos (πῖλος)
conical cap and a riding cloak.
The Dioscuri statue on the left side as you climb the steps up
to the Piazza del Campidoglio, on the Capitoline Hill, Rome.
Colossal marble statues of Castor and Pollux with horses
on the Piazza del Campidoglio, Capitoline Hill, Rome.
|In the background is the Palazzo Senatorio, the 12th century senate house of the commune of Rome, now the offices of the city's mayor. It was restored by Michelangelo in 1546 and several times thereafter. The bell tower with the clock was added in 1582. The equestrian statue of Emperor Marcus Aurelius in the centre of the piazza has been replaced by a copy. The original is now in the Palazzo dei Conservatori of the Capitoline Museums, on the right of the piazza.
The torso of a marble statuette of a youth wearing a himation
(cloak) over his shoulders. Perhaps one of the Dioskouroi.
Probably 1st half of the 2nd century AD.
Height 60 cm, width 33 cm, depth 19.5 cm.
Skulpturensammlung, Albertinum, Dresden. Inv. No. Hm 249.
Plaster cast of the so-called "San Ildefonso Group", marble staues of two
youths, perhaps the Dioscuri. The head of the figure on the left has been
replaced with a portrait of Antinous of the Apollo-Antinous type.
Augustan and Hadrianic periods, 1st century BC - 2nd century AD.
Height 160 cm, width 112 cm, depth 58 cm.
Abguss-Sammlung (Cast Collection), Semperbau, Dresden. Inv. No. ASN 2379.
Acquired in 1783 with the cast collection of Anton Rafael Mengs (1728-1779).
||The original statue group, made of white Carrara marble, is in the Museo del Prado, Madrid (Inv. No. 28-E). Also known as the Ildefonso Group, it was named after San Ildefonso in Segovia, Spain, where it was kept at the palace of La Granja until 1839 when it was acquired by the Prado.
Probably found in the early 17th century in Rome, the earliest record of the sculpture is in 1623 when it was in the collection of Cardinal Ludovico Ludovisi at the Villa Ludovisi, Rome. After the cardinal's death it became the property of Cardinal Camillo Massimo, then of Queen Christine of Sweden, and in 1724 it was acquired by King Felipe V of Spain.
It is thought that the sculpture was made during the reign of Augustus (27 BC - 14 AD), and at some point the head of the youth on the left was replaced by a portrait of Antinous, Emperor Hadrian's deified favourite. This may have occurred either during Hadrian's reign (117-138 AD) or, more probably, when it was restored around 1623 by Ippolito Buzzi (1562-1634).
There is no other known statue group of this type, which is thought to be a Neo Attic creation inspired by works of 5th and 4th century BC Greek sculptors such as Polykleitos and Praxiteles. However, a statuette in Athens is clearly a version of one of the figures in the group (see photo below).
Two idealized nude youths, wearing laurel wreaths, stand next to each other. The figure on the left leans on the other who holds two torches, with one of which he ignites a garlanded altar. The youths have been variously identified as Castor and Pollux, Orestes and Pylades, Hypnos and Thanatos (Sleep and Death), and Corydon and Alexis.
Behind the right-hand figure stands a small female figure (see photo, right), probably a statue of a female deity and perhaps Artemis or Persephone, wearing a polos and holding a sphere, interpreted as an egg or a pomegranate.
A large number of casts and copies in various materials (bronze, marble, cast iron, porcelain) have been made of the sculpture, and many are now in collections and museums.
The Dresden cast is well finished and polished, and is in remarkably good condition considering its history. It has been transported a number of times, and has survived the World War II bombings, confiscation by the Soviet government and the flooding of the River Elbe in 2002.
Until 2016 it was exhibited with the Sculpture Collection (Skulpturensammlung) in the Albertinum, Dresden (where the photo above was taken), but is presently (2018) displayed with other casts of ancient sculptures in a room in the Semperbau (or Semper-Galerie) of the Zwinger, which exhibits paintings of the Old Masters (Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister). The cast collection as well as the antiquities collection of the Dresden museums have been without a permanent home since 2002, although there are plans to house them in part of the Semperbau in the near future.
For further information about the Dresden Cast Collection and Mengs, see the Niobe page.
Head of Antinous of the Apollo-Antinous type
on the San Ildefonso Group cast in Dresden.
The small female figure of the
San Ildefonso Group in Dresden.
A marble statuette of a youth
of the Ildefonso type.
Around the end of the 1st century BC.
"Probably Pentelic marble".
National Archaeological Museum,
Athens. Inv. No. 3631.
An engraving of the San Ildefonso Group in Rome,
published by Johann Winckelmann in 1767.
Johann Joachim Winckelmann, Monumenti
antichi inediti spiegati ed illustrati da
Giovanni Winckelmann, Volume I (Unedited
antique monuments, described and illustrated
by Giovanni Winckelmann). Rome, 1767.
At Heidelberg University Digital Library.
An unnumbered plate by an unknown artist
in the preface, between pages XIII and XIV.
A marble votive relief with the Dioskouroi and a procession of worshippers.
Palazzo Altemps, National Museum of Rome. Inv. No. 182595. Brancaccio Collection.
|On the left, Castor and Pollux sit on rock-hewn seats holding spears, with their horses at their sides. They face right, towards an approaching woman holding a wine jug and a phiale (libation bowl). Behind her a family of worshippers, a man and a woman holding ceremonial branches and two boys, depicted at a smaller scale, also approach the twins. The inscription below the relief is modern, museum labelling in stone.
The composition is based on a common type of Attic votive relief (see similar reliefs dedicated to Asklepios, Pan and the nymphs, Demeter, and Plouton and Persephone) and it is thought this may be a Greek original of the first half of the 4th century BC. Found in the area of the Horti Maecenatiani (Gardens of Maecenas), Rome, it may have belonged to a Roman collector.
Fragment of an inscribed votive relief of Kastor and Polydeukes, the Dioskouroi,
and part of the reclining river god Strymon (Στρυμών), the personification of the
River Strymon, which flows though Amphipolis .
From Amphipolis, Macedonia, Greece. 2nd century AD.
Amphipolis Archaeological Museum. Inv. No. Λ 673.
|The Dioskouroi stand either side of their horses, facing frontally. Each is naked apart from a pilos (πῖλος) conical cap (see Medusa), chlamys (χλαμύς, short cloak), and holds a spear in one hand and the reins of his horse in the other. A tree and a foot and the lower part of the himation (cloak) of the reclining river god Strymon can be seen on the right edge of the broken stele. Below the inscription on the bottom of the frame of the relief, is a serpent, a common feature of hero reliefs. The snake appears to be drinking or feeding from a spoon or leaf shaped object.
The remains of the inscription below the relief:
[C]ΤΡΥΜΟΝΑ ΚΑΙ ΧΑΡΙΤΕCΘΗΚ [ - - - -
The quality of the workmanship is poor, and, as ever, it is tempting to believe that it is a copy, a faint echo, of a much finer work of an earlier age. No such original masterpiece has yet been discovered, but the iconography appears in several ancient works, mostly from the Roman period, as can be seen in photos below.
See another votive relief dedicated to the Dioskouroi below.
An unlabelled relief outside Amphipolis Archaeological Museum
depicting two horsemen, each wearing a pilos, cloak and short
chiton (tunic), either side of a woman with her right arm raised.
Plaster cast of a marble relief of one of the Dioscuri (a Dioskouros
or Dioscuros) leading a horse to the right, past an arched gateway.
The original is from the Roman Imperial period.
Height 82 cm, width 62 cm, depth 6 cm.
Abguss-Sammlung (Cast Collection), Semperbau, Dresden. Inv. No. ASN 4406.
|So far I have discovered little about the original relief, which may be a Neo Attic work. It is in the Pio Clementino Museum of the Vatican Museums, Rome, and according to the Dresden museums website is of the "middle of the Imperial period", presumably the 2nd century AD.
One of the 19th century catalogues of the Dresden Cast Collection describes the relief as "Castor with the horse" (Matthäy, 1831, Hautreliefs im fünften Fenster, Cat. No. 91, page 29), while two others claim it depicts Bellerophon with Pegasus before gates of Corinth (Chalybaeus, 1843, Reliefs im fünften Fenster, Cat. No. 52, page 37; Hettner 1881, Cat. No. 139, page 105).
For further information about the Dresden Cast Collection and details of the catalogues
see the note on the Niobe page.
Inscribed marble votive relief showing the Roman deities Jupiter and
Juno Dolicheni with Isis, Serapis, the Dioscuri, Sol (Sun) and Luna (Moon).
Circa 250 AD. Excavated in July 1935 at the sanctuary of Jupiter Dolichenus on the
Aventine Hill, Rome . Carrara marble. Height 57 cm, width 58.5 cm, thickness 7 cm.
Centrale Montemartini, Capitoline Museums, Rome. Inv. No. 9750.
|The "oriental" Roman cult of Jupiter Dolichenus was often associated with those of other deities. In this relief, Jupiter (standing on a bull) and Juno (on a cow or hind) Dolicheni are depicted with four other divine couples related to the celestial and cosmic sphere. The bust of Sol (Sun, top left) wears a radiant crown, and behind Luna (Moon, top right) is a crescent. Castor and Pollux stand with horses and spears in the centre of the top row of figures. Below them stand the Egyptian gods Serapis and Isis.
On the frame of the marble slab, above and below the relief, is a two line dedication to Juno Dolicheni by Publius Egnatius Fructus:
Iovi Optimo Dolicheno d[ono] d (or d[e]d[icavit])
P[ublius] Egnatius Fructus
Inscription AE 1938, 0064 (1).
It has been suggested that the dedicator was a foreigner who took Roman citizenship and his Roman name from that of Emperor Gallienus (Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus Augustus, circa 218 - 268 AD), who was co-emperor with his father Valerian 253-260 and reigned alone 260-268.
A marble figure of one of the Dioskouroi on the capital
of a pseudopilaster from the Octagon, Thessaloniki.
Imperial workshop, Thessaloniki. Early 4th century AD.
The small dioskouros figure stands facing frontally, naked apart
from a pilos and cloak over his shoulders, holding an upright
spear with his left hand, and his right hand resting on his hip.
Thessaloniki Archaeological Museum. Inv. No. 6692.
A relief on the front panel of a marble sarcophagus with an architectural setting,
depicting a married couple, behind whom stands a goddess wearing a diadem,
flanked by the Dioscuri with their horses, three erotes (cupids) and two river gods.
240-260 AD. From the Via Appia, Rome.
Palazzo Massimo alle Terme, National Museum of Rome.
The Dioscuri taking part in the hunt of the Kalydonian Boar
on a relief on the front of a marble sarcophagus.
Late 2nd - early 3rd century AD. Proconnesian marble. Found in 1872 in Vicovaro
(ancient Varia, Latium), northeast of Rome. Height 125 cm, width 256 cm, depth 137 cm.
Palazzo dei Conservatori, Capitoline Museums, Rome. Inv. No. 917.
|The complicated story of the hunt of the monstrous Kalydonian Boar (or Calydonian Boar; Greek, Καλυδώνιος Κάπρος, Kalydonios Kapros) features a Who's Who of Greek mythological characters, including Artemis, Meleager (the main hero of the myth), Peleus, the Argonauts, Asklepios, Atalanta, the Dioskouroi and Theseus. Several Roman period sarcophagi reliefs depicting the hunt have survived, showing that it was one of the popular mythical themes produced for the tombs of wealthy citizens keen to display their heroic virtue, religious inclinations and artistic and literary taste.
Artemis sent the boar to ravage the countryside of Kalydonia in Aetolia (central Greece), to punish the Kalydonian king Oeneus (Οἰνεύς)  for forgetting to sacrifice to her. Oeneus' son Meleager (Μελέαγρος, Meleagros) hunted the boar with several heroes and Atalanta (Ἀταλάντη, Atalante), the only female in the hunting party. Several of the group were killed by the beast which was first wounded by Atalanta and eventually finished off by Meleager's spear.
In Greek and Roman art the boar is sometimes shown as an enormous monster, but often shown smaller, at a more natural size. This may be due to considerations of space, particularly on reliefs, but also as part of the tradition of depicting gods and heroes, the main characters of scenes, as larger than mortals, minor characters and animals. This relief also shows the Dioscuri and their horses at a smaller scale than the other figures.
In the centre Meleager stabs the Kalydonian Boar with a spear. Atalanta, dressed as Artemis, the goddess of the hunt, stands next to him, holding a bow and drawing an arrow from her quiver. Castor and Pollux ride rearing horses at each side of the scene. Two hunting dogs attack the boar, and a third on the left menaces a crouching hare, behind which is a lower relief of a fallen antelope. The other three figures, bearded men wearing tunics, cloaks and hunting boots, appear to be the same person. On wonders whether the faces of the characters in the relief are portraits, perhaps of members of the family which commissioned or purchased the sarcophagus, a practice known from other reliefs such as on a sarcophagus depicting the Labours of Hercules in the Palazzo Altemps, Rome (Inv. No. 8642).
On the lid, which is slightly shorter than the sarcophagus, is a sculpture of a couple reclining on a kline (couch), flanked by erotes (cupids). The heads of the pair have been left unfinished. Such sarcophagi, some with stock designs and others with more elaborate reliefs, were made at a number of workshops around the Mediterranean, notably at Prokonnesos (today Marmara, Turkey) and Ephesus, and often shipped in a semi-finished state for sale in other cities, where presumably the features of the deceased where sculpted after purchase. An alternative suggestion is that the features of the couple may have been later erased for some reason.
A panel from a marble sarcophagus with a relief depicting the Kalydonian Boar hunt.
Roman Imperial period, 150-250 AD. Greek marble. Height 85 cm, width 188 cm.
To the right of the boar, Meleager is about to thrust his spear into the creature.
To the left Peleus (or Theseus?) holds a sword. Behind him stands one of the
Dioscuri, naked apart from a pilos (πῖλος) conical cap and chlamys (short cloak).
The head of his brother can be seen behind him in lower relief.
Ashmolean Museum, Oxford. Inv. No. AD 1947.278.
From Naples. Acquired 1947 from the Sir Francis Cook Collection,
Doughty House, Richmond, southwest London.
Detail of the relief in the Ashmolean Museum, showing Kastor and Polydeukes (left).
Kastor and Polydeukes taking part in the hunt of the Kalydonian Boar
on a relief on the front of an Attic sarcophagus from Eleusis, Attica, Greece.
Around 200 AD.
The Dioskouroi are side by side on horseback, directly above the boar
(see photo below). The legs of their horses can be seen below the
boar's body. They face frontally with raised right arms, and they
originally held spears with which they were stabbing the creature.
Eleusis Archaeological Museum. Inv. No. 5243.
Detail of the Kalydonian Boar hunt relief in Eleusis.
The front of a Roman period marble sarcophagus with a relief showing the Dioskouroi
taking part in the hunt of the Kalydonian Boar. Castor and Pollux stand with horses
just to the left of the centre of the scene. The sarcophagus was reused as the tomb
of Caesar Marullus (Cesare Marullo, died 1588), Bishop of Agrigento 1574-1577,
Archbishop of Palermo 1577-1588 and founder of the Seminary of Palermo.
The crypt of Palermo Cathedral, Sicily.
The Dioskouroi on the sarcophagus in Palermo Cathedral, Sicily.
||Notes, references and links
1. Dioskouroi and Dioscuri
On this page the names Dioskouroi, Kastor and Polydeukes are used for Greek contexts, and Dioscuri, Castor and Pollux for Roman contexts.
2. The Dioskouroi, the Apharidae and Leucippides
The twin princes Lynkeus (Λυγκεύς) and Idas (Ἴδας), were sons of Aphareus (Ἀφαρεύς), who with his brother Leukippos (Λεύκιππος) was joint king of Messenia (Μεσσηνία), in the western Peloponnese. They were also said to be cousins of the Dioskouroi, as Tyndareos was also a brother of Aphareus and Leukippos. They are often referred to as the Apharidae (Ἀφαρηίδαι, Apharidi), Aphareidi, Aphareides, Apharetidae (Ἀφαρητίδαι, Apharetidai), Apharetides, or Apharetiadai (Ἀφαρητιάδαι).
They were betrothed to their cousins, Hilaeira (Ιλάειρα, Softly Shining) and Phoebe (Φοίβη, Lunar Bright), the daughters of Leukippos and Philodike (Φιλοδίκη). The sisters, who were priestesses of Artemis and Athena, were known as the Leukippides (Λευκιππιδες, Daughters of Leukippos, or Of the White Horses). They were also said to be cousins of the Dioskouroi. In some versions of myths, Phoebe was their half sister.
Kastor and Polydeukes, charmed by the beauty of the Leukippides, abducted them and carried them off to Sparta. Each of the sisters had a son by one of the Dioskouroi: Phoebe bore Mnesileos to Polydeukes and Hilaeira bore Anogon to Kastor. Lynkeus and Idas attempted to recover the sisters, but during the ensuing battle Kastor killed Lynkeus, then Idas killed Kastor, and finally Polydeukes killed Idas. Polydeukes persuaded Zeus to allow Kastor to share his immortality with his brother, and the sisters were also made immortal.
Like the Dioskouroi, Lynkeus and Idas were also said to have been among Jason's Argonauts, and to have participated in the hunt of the Kalydonian Boar.
See also Hilaeira and Phoebe in a painting from Herculaneum on the Niobe page.
3. Meleager of Gadara on the etymology of cyclamen
William Roger Paton (1857-1921), translator, The Greek anthology Volume I (of five), Book IV, The poems of the different anthologies, 1. "The Stephanus of Meleager" ("The introduction to Meleager's Garland"), page 113. William Heinemann, London; G.P. Putnam's sons, New York, 1916. At archive.org.
4. Double heads on coins from Istros
It has been suggested that the double heads on coins from Istros may represent Apollo or Helios as the rising and setting sun, or the supposed two branches of the river Danube (or Ister).
5. Metopes of the Sikyonian monopteros, Delphi
The five surviving metopes (mostly fragments), in the order they are exhibited in the Delphi museum (left to right):
1. A figure on the back of a large ram, possibly Helle or Phrixos riding the Golden Ram in the myth of the Golden Fleece.
2. A large boar, probably the Kalydonian Boar, below which is a relatively tiny dog;
3. A woman on a bull, probably Europa on Zeus;
4. Idas following Kastor and Polydeukes (names inscribed) with cattle;
5. The ship Argo with two musicians, Orpheus (inscribed) on the right, the other unidentifiable, and the Dioskouroi on horseback on either side (Polydeukes inscribed, on the left);
6. Kleobis and Biton
Kleobis (Κλέοβις) and Biton (Βίτων) were two legendary or mythical brothers from Argos whose story was mentioned by Herodotus. The strong young men died after pulling their mother's ox cart to a festival at the temple of Hera in Argos, and according to Herodotus, "the Argives made and dedicated at Delphi statues of them as being the best of men". (Histories, Book 1, chapter 31)
Pausanias mentioned a relief depicting the brothers pulling their mother's wagon, opposite the sanctuary of Nemean Zeus at Delphi (Description of Greece, Book 2, chapter 20, section 3). The scene is also known from a relief on an altar now in the Baths of Diocletian, Rome (see photo, right).
The kouros statues were discovered during the massive excavations at Delphi, directed by Jean Théophile Homolle (1848-1925), director of the French Archaeological School at Athens (l’École française d’archéologie d’Athènes) 1890-1903. When the first statue was unearthed it was recognized as one of the earliest large-scale Archaic kouroi. However, the subsequent discovery of its twin caused considerable confusion, followed by a great deal of speculation. It was apparently Homolle who, recalling the passage from Herodotus, identified the figures as Kleobis and Biton. An early reading of the inscriptions on the bases ([κλεοβις και βι]τον | ταν ματαρα ...) appeared to confirm the identification, which was generally accepted.
The inscriptions have since been reexamined and discussed by several scholars. Two of the most recent studies, by Claude Vatin (1981) and Paul Fauré (1985), independently concluded that the statues were dedications to the Dioskouroi. Their conclusions are discussed in an article by David Sansone, who argues that even if Vatin and Fauré are correct in claiming that the inscriptions mention the Dioskouroi, wanakes (kings, from ϝάναξ, an early form of ἄναξ; the name by which the Dioskouroi were worshipped in Argos) and even Polydeukes, the statues may still be depictions of Kleobis and Biton dedicated to the Heavenly Twins.
David Sansone, Cleobis and Biton in Delphi. Nikephoros 4 (1991), pages 121-132. At academia.edu.
A lekanis (Λεκανίς; plural, λεκανίδες, lekanides) is a type of shallow ceramic bowl with a lid, two horizontal handles and a wide foot. They are thought to have been given as wedding gifts, and to have been used by women for storing jewellery, cosmetics and other objects. A lekane (λεκάνη; plural, λεκάναι, lekanai) is similar but has no lid and is often undecorated.
8. Aulus Postumius Albus and the Dioscuri
The exact dates of Aulus Postumius Albus' life and dictatorship are uncertain. He is thought to have been dictator in 499, 498 or 496 BC when he commanded the Roman forces at the Battle of Lake Regillus. The story of the Dioscuri's miraculous appearances and their intervention on the side of the Romans at the battle may be a later explanation for the origin of their temple in the Forum.
Aulus Postumius Albus was also said to have been responsible for the establishment of Rome's first temple of Ceres (Demeter, another Greek deity, adopted by the plebeians), following a vow he made during a famine around 496 BC (see Demeter and Persephone). These legendary events and the introduction of new religious institutions in the city occurred shortly after the foundation of the Roman Republic around 509 BC.
9. Dioscuri statues on the Piazza del Quirinale, Rome
The two statues of Castor and Pollux with their horses, around 5.5 metres high, are thought to be Roman Imperial period copies of 5th century BC Greek originals. They stand on a high pedestal in the middle of the square, flanking the Dioscuri Fountain and a granite obelisk which previously stood in front of the Mausoleum of Augustus. The statues, known as the horse tamers, had stood somewhere in the city since the fall of the Roman Empire, and during Medieval times were mentioned by authors and appeared in images of Rome. The false inscriptions on the statues, "Opus Phidiae" and "Opus Praxitelis", have been dated to circa 450 AD. They were discovered in the ruins of the early 4th century AD Baths of Constantine (Thermae Constantinianae) on the Quirinal Hill. Pope Sixtus V commissioned Domenico Fontana to set the statues up on the square in 1588. The obelisk was added by Pope Pius VI in 1786.
10. The temple of the Dioscuri near the Circus Flaminius
There are only two brief mentions of this temple by ancient authors. One of them, Vitruvius, merely notes that its unusual architectural form was similar to that of temples of Athena on the Athenian Acropolis and at Sounion:
"There are also other kinds of temples, constructed in the same symmetrical proportions and yet with a different kind of plan: for example, the temple of Castor in the district of the Circus Flaminius, that of Vejovis between the two groves, and still more ingeniously the temple of Diana in her sacred grove, with columns added on the right and left at the flanks of the pronaos. Temples of this kind, like that of Castor in the Circus, were first built in Athens on the Acropolis, and in Attica at Sunium to Pallas Minerva. The proportions of them are not different, but the same as usual. For the length of their cellae is twice the width, as in other temples; but all that we regularly find in the fronts of others is in these transferred to the sides."
Vitruvius, Ten books on architecture, Book 4, chapter 8, section 4. Translated by Morris Hicky Morgan and Albert A. Howard. Harvard University Press and Oxford University Press, 1914. At Project Gutenberg.
11. Strymon, the river and river god
The sources of the 415 kilometre long Strymon river (Ancient Greek, Στρυμών; modern Greek, Στρυμόνας, Strymonas) are on the south slopes of the Vitosha mountain in Bulgaria, south of Sofia. It flows southwards for 290 kilometres, enters Macedonia, Greece, flows through Amphipolis (Ἀμφίπολις) and into the Strymonic Gulf of the Northern Aegean Sea at the site of Eion (Ἠϊών), the ancient port of Amphipolis.
Strymon is thought to be an ancient Thracian name. Areas of tribal Thrace around the Northern Aegean coast were colonized by Greeks from around the 10th century BC, with a second, larger wave of colonization in the 8th - 6th centuries BC (see History of Stageira and Olympiada part 2). Later, many parts of western Thrace were gradually conquered by the Macedonians, particularly by Philp II (ruled 359-336 BC), who extended Macedonian territory to east of the Strymon (see History of Stageira and Olympiada part 6).
Depictions of the river god Strymon (Στρυμών) are rare, and the few short references to him by ancient authors differ in details, some of which contradict other accounts. Like many Greek river gods, Strymon was said to be the son of Okeanos (Oceanus) and Tethys. He was a Thracian king and the father of the Thracian heroes Olynthos (Ὄλυνθος), Brangas (Βράγγασ) and Rhesos (Ῥῆσος), by one of the Muses, either Euterpe or Calliope. By Neaera (Νέαιρα) he was also the father of Evadne (Εὐάδνη), wife of Argos, king of Argos in the Peloponnese.
Olynthos was either the mythical founder of the city of Olynthos in Halkidiki (see History of Stageira and Olympiada parts 5 and 6), or was killed by a lion during a hunt and buried there by his brother Brangas. According to another version of the myth, Olynthos was a son of Herakles and the goddess or nymph Bolbe (Βόλβη) who lived in the lake of the same name (modern Lake Volvi), around 30 km west of the Strymon.
Homer mentioned Rhesos as a king of Thrace who was killed by Odysseus and Diomedes at Troy (Iliad, Book 10, see Homer), but wrote that his father was Eioneus (Ἠιονεύς). The name may be the mythological eponym of the Thracian city Eion at the mouth of the Strymon. On hearing of the death of his son, Strymon is said to have drowned in the river which was renamed after him. This story is similar to that of the Aegean Sea being named after King Aegeus of Athens who drowned himself when he thought that his son Theseus was dead (see Athens Acropolis gallery page 11).
Relief on the front of a marble altar depicting
Kleobis and Biton pulling their mother's wagon,
here in the form of a chariot.
Roman Imperial period. Found in 1942
in the Via della Giustiniana, Rome.
A relief on the left side of the altar shows Artemis and
Acteon, and on the right side Dionysus or Hippolytus.
National Museum of Rome, Baths of Diocletian.
Inv. No. 121983.
High relief on the front of a grave stele
depicting two youths standing side by
side and embracing. They are stepping
forward in the manner of kouroi statues.
Found at Tanagra, Boeotia, Greece.
Boeotian poros, work of a Boeotian
workshop. 1st quarter of the 6th century BC.
An unusual stele, one of the earliest known
Greek funerary monuments. An inscription
records that it was erected by Amphalkes
on the grave of Dermys and Kytilos. It is
thought that the relief depicts the deceased,
who were perhaps brothers. The stele may
have been crowned with a seated sphinx.
National Archaeological Museum, Athens.
Inv. No. 56.
12. Jupiter Dolichenus and the Aventine Hill
The epiphet Dolichenus is taken from the ancient city of Doliche (Greek, Δολίχη) today the village of Dülük, around 10 km north of Gaziantep city centre and 50 km west of Euphrates river, in south-central Turkey, near the border with Syria. The syncretic mystery cult is thought to have been developed by Roman soldiers from the local Hadad-Baal-Teshub cult from around the 1st century BC, when they conquered much of this area and incorporated it into the Roman province of Syria. Like Jupiter Dolichenus, the Anatolian and Mesopotamian weather gods Teshub and Hadad were sometimes represented holding a weapon, such as a double axe, in one hand, and a thunderbolt in the other, and standing with or on a bull.
By the 2nd century the Jupiter Dolichenus cult had spread through the Roman Empire, and is known from inscriptions and other artefacts found in Germania, Britannia, Dacia, Pannonia, north Africa, Italy and Rome. It reached the height of its popularity during the 3rd century, when this relief was made, after which it declined rapidly.
The cult is not mentioned by ancient authors, and since, like other mystery cults such as the Eleusinian Mysteries (see Demeter and Persephone), its secrets were revealed only to the intitiated, nothing is known of its beliefs, rites or practices. It appears that its initiates actively recruited and that it ws in competition with other "oriental" syncretic cults, particularly that of Mithras.
The modern term dolichenum, for a santuary or temple of Jupiter Dolichenus, was coined by archaeologists, although the word dolicenum is mentioned in at least one inscription. There were three sanctuaries of Juno Dolichenus in Rome. Those on the Esquiline Hill and Caelian Hill are thought to have been military establishments, while that on the Aventine Hill, founded during the reign of Antoninus Pius (138-161 AD), was for civilians.
Although the existence of the Aventine dolichenum was known from regionary catalogues of the 4th century, it was discovered by chance in 1935 during the digging of a drain on the Via di San Domenico, between the churches of Santi Bonifacio e Alessio and Santa Sabina. During subsequent excavations, the remains of an open sanctuary which had later been roofed over were unearthed. Among the artefacts found was an altar and a large number of inscriptions, statues and reliefs. As at other sanctuaries of the cult, objects were found which included representations of other gods, such as Diana, Isis, Serapis, Mitra, Sol, Luna and the Dioscuri, who were also worshipped at shrines on the Aventine.
This relief is sometimes referred to as Inv. No. 6745, which was presumably its old invoice number before it was moved to the Centrale Montemartini museum.
Elmar Schwertheim, Corpus Cultus Iovis Dolicheni (CCID). E. J. Brill, Leiden, 1987. This relief is No. 386, pages 253-254, Tafel LXXXVII.
Charles S. Sanders, Jupiter Dolichenus, in Journal of the American Oriental Society, Volume 23, pages 84-92. New Haven, Connecticut, 1902. At the Internet Archive. A short introduction to the cult and study of Jupiter Dolichenus.
Pinar Kuşseven, The cult of Iupiter Dolichenus: origins and iconography. M.A. thesis. Department of Archaeology and Art History, Bilkent University, Ankara, 2007. PDF. With bibliography.
Joachim Pahl, Der Kult des Jupiter Dolichenus - Ausbreitung, Selbstverstandnis, Niedergang - Auf der Basis statistischer Erhebungen und mit einem erganzenden Corpus, pages 160-162 and Tafel XXIV, EC 61. Inaugural dissertation, Westfalischen Wilhelms-Universitat zu Munster, 2010. At the Internet Archive. With bibliography.
13. King Oeneus of Kalydonia
Oeneus was the father of Meleager, Deianeira, Toxeus, Clymenus, Periphas, Agelaus, Thyreus (or Phereus or Pheres), Gorge, Eurymede, Mothone, Perimede and Melanippe. According to other versions of myths, Meleager's father was Ares, and Deianeira (the wife of Herakles) was the daughter of Dionysus.
He was credited with introducing winemaking to Aetolia. In a story similar to those concerning other legendary or mythical heroes in places around the Greek world, he was taught the arts of viniculture and winemaking by Dionysus. See, for example, the story of Ikarios introducing viniculture to Attica.
A limestone funerary relief showing a banqueting scene with two heroized young men,
perhaps brothers. The deceased youths, almost identical, recline on a kline (couch).
The youth on the left holds out a phiale (libation bowl) to a serving boy (a "wine-pourer").
The table in front of the kline is laden with food. Traces of colour are still visible.
3rd century BC. From Syracuse, Sicily.
Paolo Orsi Regional Archaeological Museum, Syracuse.
|Photos on this page were taken during
visits to the following museums:
Dresden, Albertinum, Skulpturensammlung
Dresden, Semperbau, Abguss-Sammlung
Amphipolis Archaeological Museum, Macedonia
Athens, National Archaeological Museum
Delphi Archaeological Museum
Eleusis Archaeological Museum, Attica
Thasos Archaeological Museum, Macedonia
Thessaloniki Archaeological Museum, Macedonia
Milan, Civic Archaeological Museum
Naples, National Archaeological Museum
Paestum, National Archaeological Museum
Rome, Capitoline Museums, Centrale Montemartini
Rome, Capitoline Museums, Palazzo dei Conservatori
Rome, Capitoline Museums, Palazzo Nuovo
Rome, National Museum of Rome, Baths of Diocletian
Rome, National Museum of Rome, Palazzo Altemps
Rome, National Museum of Rome, Palazzo Massimo alle Terme
Rome, Roman Forum archaeological site
Italy - Sicily
Agrigento Regional Archaeological Museum
Istanbul Archaeological Museum
London, British Museum
Oxford, Ashmolean Museum
Many thanks to the staff of these museums.
|Photos and articles © David John, except where otherwise specified.|
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